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A & P Chapter 2 Pt B

A & P Chapter 2 Part B - Organic

What element are present in carbohydrates? Carbon - Hydrogen - Oxygen
Carbohydrates incluse what? Sugars, glycogen, starches, cellulose
What are the three majior groups that carbohydrates are divided into? 1 - Monosaccharides; 2 - Disaccharides; 3 - Polysaccharides
What is another term for monosaccharides & Disaccharides? Simple sugars
What is another term for polysaccharides? complex carbohydrates
How is a disaccharide formed? Two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond, a molecule of water is formed & removed
What is the reaction called when a water is formed and removed? Dehydration synthesis
What is the main polysaccharide in the body? glycogen
What glycogan made of? Glucose units joined together in braching chains
Where is glycogen stored? In the liver and skeletal muscles
What happens to glycogen when energy demands are high? It is broken down into glucose
Describe starches - They are polysaccharides made of glucose units made by plants
Where does cellulose come from? It is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls (Human canot digest it; it is roughage or fiber for digestion)
What is a difference between simple sugars(monoaccharides) and polysaccharides? Polysaccharides are not soluble in water and do not taste sweet
Define hydrophobic - Insoluble in water
Name the different lipid families - Triglycerides (fats & oils); Phospholipids (lipids that contain phosphorus); steroids (Hormon based from cholesterol); Fatty acids; & fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, & K)
Describe triglycerides - Body's most highly concentrated form of chemical energy
Where are triglycerides stored? In the adipose tissue
What forms the backbone of a triglyceride? A three-carbon glycerol molecule
Define saturated fat - Mainly triglycerides, they contain only single convalent bonds between fatty acid caron atoms and are saturated with hydrogen
Define monounsaturated fats - Contains fatty acids with one double covalent bond between 2 fatty acid carbon atoms and are not completed saturated in hydrogen atoms
Define polyunsaturated fats - Contain more than one double covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms
Define essential fatty acids (EFAs) - Fatty acids that are essential to human health, but are not made by the human body. (Must be gotten from food)
What is the structure of steroids? Four rings of carbon atoms
Define amino acids - Building blocks of proteins
Define peptide bonds - covalent bonds that join amino acids together
Define catalysts - Enzymes that can speed up chemical reactions without themselves being altered
What are the two kinds of nucleic acids? DNA & RNA
What are the four bases of DNA? Adenine (A); Thymine (T); Cytosine (C); Guanine (G)
The DNA rung, adenine always pairs with what? Thymine
The DNA rung, cytosine always pairs with what? Guanine
Created by: ct program