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Pattison’s Four Traditions (1964): W.D. Pattison-earth-science: physical geography (not one of the Five Themes)-locational: spatial tradition (location)-man-land: human/environmental interaction-area-studies: regional geography
Five Themes of Geography (1986) -loca: sit. of things-human/env. interaction: relationship b/w human & env.-region: area on Earth marked by a degree of homogeneity-place: uniqueness of a loc.; phenomena w/i an area-movement: mobility of people, goods & ideas; phenomena b/w areas
Anthropogenic Caused or produced by humans
Formal Region (uniform, homogenous) homogenous region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or mare distinctive characteristics. The shared feature could be a cultural value such as a common language, or an environmental climate.
Functional Region (nodal) Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward; is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional assoc.
Vernactual Region (perceptual) place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity. Such regions emerge from peoples informal sense of place rather than from scientific models developed through geographic thought.
Culture Complex a combination of related cultural traits (e.g., prevailing modes of dress; nationalism)
Environmental Perception a person’s idea or image of a place; may often be inaccurate
Ancient Culture Hearths Fertile Crescent, Indus Valley, Chang & Yellow River Valley (China), Nile River Valley and Delta, Meso-America (origin of farming developed during the First Agricultural Revolution beginning around 12,000 years ago).
Modern Culture Hearths Europe, North America, Japan (origin and focus of the Industrial Revolution beginning in the early 1800s after the onset of the Second Agricultural Revolution).
Migrant Diffusion spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source … moves like a “Slinky” (e.g., spread of the Spanish Flu toward the end of World War I). Ex:fortune cookies
Transculturation : A near equal exchange of culture traits or customs Assimilation: Process of less dominant cultures losing their culture to a more dominant culture
Cultural Ecology The geographic study of the multiple interactions of human-environmental relationships
Holocene Epoch current interglaciation pd-sustained warming phase b/w glaciations during an ice age-started 12,000 yrs ago (some scientists speculate that since humans influence the Earth as no species was able to before, we have recently entered the Anthropocene epoch)
GIS (Global Information System) collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used, and displayed.
GPS (Global Positioning System) satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places.
Remote Sensing method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
TODALSIG (Title, Orientation, Date, Author, Legend, Scale, Index, Grid) acronym for assessing the validity and reliability of any map
Proportional Symbol type of thematic map in which the areas of symbols are varied in proportion to the value of an attribute (e.g., city population)
Preferance Map map demonstrating progressively more desirable options
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density; how many people per area of land.
Physiological Density -The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
Agricultural Density -the number of farmers per unit of area of farmland. May mean a country has inefficient agriculture
Sustainability - providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the futureRelates to development that meets today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Major Population Concentrations East Asia, South Asia, Europe, North America
Linear Growth arithmetic growth; increases at a constant amount per unit time (1, 2, 3, 4, …)
Exponential Growth geometric growth; doubles each population (2, 4, 8, 16, …)
Baby Boom people born in the US between 1946 and 1964; this post-war era allowed for better education, employment, peace and prosperity - increasing higher rates of both marriage and fertility.
Baby Bust period in the US during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates dropped as many female baby boomers sought higher levels of education and jobs, marrying later in life.
Generation X people born in the US between 1965 and 1980; will have the burden of supporting the Baby Boom cohort as they head into retirement.
Generaton Y people born between 1980 and 2001; also referred to as "Echo Boomers" (many are the offspring of Baby Boomers).
Child Mortality Rate annual number of deaths of children under the age of 5, compared with total live births (also calculated as number of deaths per 1,000 births).
Maternal Mortaliy Rate annual number of deaths of women during childbirth per 1,000 women.
Epidemiological Transition denotes a human phase of develop. witnessed by a sudden increase in pop. growth rates brought about by medical innovation in disease & sickness treatment, followed by a re-leveling of population growth from subsequent declines in procreation rates.
1st Transition occurred when advancements in antibiotic research in the mid twentieth century, most notably in the discovery of penicillin, led to widespread and dramatic declines in death rates from infectious diseases.
2nd Transition when human birth rates drastically decline, (need for manual labor drops),entails the sociological adaptations assoc. w/ demo. movements to urban areas, & a shift from primary & 2nd prod. output to tech. & service-sector-based economies
Intercontinental Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent.
Thomas, Malthus -food production = linear; human reproduction = geometric; despite natural checks (famine, disease) … will always be overpopulation; he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
Stationary Population Level when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero. (aka Zero population growth; Often applied to countries in stage 4 of the demographic transition model)
Boserup human growth stimulates agricultural intensification (Malthus upside-down)
Marx anti-capitalist; lack of food is due to unequal distribution; human growth is not a problem
Cornucopian Theory Earth has an abundance of resources; can never be used up
Neo-Malthusian Theory theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count 2 factors that Malthus did not: pop. growth in LDC’s, & outstripping of resources other than food
Interregional Permanent movement from one region of the country to another
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration -1885; Ernst Ravenstein1. net migration is part of gross migration2. migrants move a short distance3. migrants tend to choose big cities4. urban residents are less migratory than rural inhabitant5. young adults move more than families
Gravity Model (Ravenstein) Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Catalysts of Migration many exist such as economic conditions, political circumstances, armed conflict & civil war, environmental conditions, culture and traditions, technological advances, flow of information (through technology) …
Periodic Movement movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation (e.g., military service, migrant workers, college attendance, transhumance – movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures)
Refugees people who leave their homes because they are forced out (but not because they are officially relocated (Nazis forcing Jews into ghettoes) or enslaved.
Population Policies Expansive: encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth; Restrictive: reduce the rate of natural increase
Eugenic favor one racial sector over others (e.g., Japan, US up until the civil rights movement (1960s), Nazis are an extreme example of eugenics)
Refugee Patterns 1) move without any more tangible property than what they can carry or transport with them; 2) make their first “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat; and 3) move without the official documents that accompany channeled migration.
Cultural Identity -Ones belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect. You can “identify with” a group or “identify against” a group (what you are, or what you are not).
Cultural Linkage -migrants who have moved away but renew or maintain their connections with their homeland (facilitated by modern technology – newspapers, newsletters, blogs,…).
Cultural Revival process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.
Language Family -group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin (e.g., Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan,…)
Language Subfamily/Branch -group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
Language Group -set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics (e.g., Germanic, Romance, Slavic, …)
Language Divergence -when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language, and continued isolation causes new languages to be formed.
Language Convergence -collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages
Language Replacement (Extinction) -obliteration of an entire culture through war, disease, assimilation, or any combination of the three
Deep-Reconstruction -technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
Proto-Indo-European -hypothesized ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages.
Nostratic -hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
Conquest Theory -theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the speakers’ overpowering of earlier inhabitants through warfare and technology (e.g., fighting on horseback). Its hearth is around modern day Ukraine
Agriculture Theory theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the innovation of agriculture (being more efficient than hunting and gathering). Its hearth is around modern day Anatolia
Modern Linguistic Mosaic literacy, technology, political organization: three areas of innovation have shaped the location and nature of language in the modern world … literacy, technology (printing press), and political organization (nation-states that set up linguistic laws).
Esperanto a constructed international language developed in the late 1880s and promoted after World War I to be a universal second language (lingua franca) to foster peace. Although thousands still speak this language, it is not widespread
Pidgin -when parts of two or more languages are combined in simplified structure and vocabulary.
Creole a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue of a region and/or people.
Secularism This is the belief that humans should be based on facts and not religious beliefs. This is important to HG because this has caused conflicts in a lot of different places including politics.
Interfaith Boundaries -the boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. For case studies ... Nigeria, Sudan, Kashmir, Armenia/Azerbaijan, and Yugoslavia ...
Intrafaith Boundaries -describes the boundaries within a major religion (e.g., Belgium; Switzerland; Northern Ireland is mostly Protestant, whereas the rest of Ireland is mostly Catholic)
Fundamentalism (Extemism) literal interpretation and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (usually religious; many can take these beliefs to an extreme and even violent level.
Local Culture -refers to people who see themselves as part of a community who work to preserve their traits and customs to be unique and distinguish themselves from others.
Jihadists -jihad means "struggle" and is a religious duty of Muslims; some can take their "jihad" to an extreme and violent level often against a perceived threat to their way of life or culture (e.g., 9/11 terrorists
Ethnicity -affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture; many acts of hostility and wars (ethnic conflict) are fought over ethnonational claims to territory.
Ethnic Island (enclave/neighborhood) -an area typically situated apart from a more homogenous region (e.g., metropolitan city) and comprised of a local culture that may practice their own culture.
Affinity Segregation -process by which people group and live with people more like themselves in terms of culture, ethnicity, or race; this is done by choice, free of outside intervention.
Gendered Space -areas or regions designed for men or women
European Model -: a state model based on inviolable territory (after the Peace of Westphalia), governmental sovereignty ), permanent population with a national culture, and a state capital. This model was spread globally due to the Age of Exploration (and Colonization).
Theocracy -a state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders (e.g., Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City (Holy See)).
Colonialism -The attempt by a country to establish settlements; political & economic control & principles. Often assoc. w/ the Euro movement in the 16th c which created unequal cultural & eco relations; conquest led to massive depop. due to the spread of disease
Imperialism -2nd phase of Euro colonialism began in the late 18th c due to the 2nd Agr. Rev. and the Industr. Rev. Euro. states sought colonies for resources necessary for industrialization, outlets for overpop., & markets for their goods. US and Japan also engaged.
Mujajaideen -A person involved in jihad
World-Systems Theory -(Immanuel Wallerstein's core-periphery model) three-tier structured theory (core, semi-periphery, periphery) proposing that social change in the developing world is linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
East/West Divide -: geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market states of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia.
Multicore State -a state that has more than one dominant region in terms of economics or politics (e.g., US (NYC, Wash. D.C.), South Africa (Pretoria = executive capital, Cape Town = legislative cap., Bloemfontein = judicial cap.)
Protruded (Prorupt) -
Bifurcated -
Watershed Boundary area of land where all of the water that is under it drains off of it goes to same place; that boundary is determined by ridges (think of a watershed as a large bathtub; when a waterdrop hits in that bathtub it eventually finds the drain)
Geopolitics (Organic Theory) (Friedrich Ratzel)analyzes geo., history & social science w/ ref. to international pol. States viewed as living organisms that consume other land to survive. Had a - rep. when Hitler embraced it to justify right for lebensraum bc of racial superiority.
Heartland Theory -(Mackinder) early 20th c.,whichever state controlled the resource-rich “heartland” of East Euro could eventually dominate the world. It suggested that not the UK (an ocean-based empire), but Russia (communist) would be able to achieve dominance.
Rimland Theory -(Nicholas Spykman) mid 20th c. theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia (the “rimland”) would provide the base for world conquest (not the “heartland”).
Forward Capital a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons; sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state (e.g., Brasília, Washington D.C.).
Unitary State a state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
Federal State state in which a group of members are bound together w/ a gov. representative head. Federalism is the system in which the power to govern is shared between the national & state governments. Considered the most geographically expressive of all states.
Below the State Boundary -internal divisions within a state (e.g., States, counties, municipalities (local self-government))
Above the State Boundary -refer to supranationalist agreements with two or more states working together for a common purpose.
SUPRANATIONALISM (study specifics) -a venture of three or more states (sometimes two or more) involving formal economic, political, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. Some examples …
Balkanization -The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries b/w 1989 and 1992.
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources stretching 200 nautical miles from the coast. The country that controls the EEZ has rights to the fishing, whaling; as well as the raw material resources.
Median-Line Theory -in situations where there is less than 400 nautical miles
Domino Theory if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow; resulting policy of the Truman Doctrine that promoted containment of communism; used by successive US admin. during the Cold War to justify US intervention in world.
New World Order -commonly refers to the post-Cold War era vision in which world affairs would not be dominated by the competition between the two nuclear superpowers; a positive and hopeful vision for the future.
Monoculture -producing or growing one crop over a wide area
Polyculture -using multiple crops in the same space, and avoiding large stands of single crops; helps prevent monocultures' susceptibility to disease. Can cause agricultural exhaustion if not done efficiently, making people move away from the land.
Multi-Cropping -: growing two or more crops in the same space during a single growing season
Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food. -Allowed us to use the sea and its abundant sources of food for our benefit.
Sustainable Yeild -ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature’s services at the same or increasing level over time
Quaternary -concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of data and capital (e.g., FIRE – finance, insurance, real estate, …).
Quinary -require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill (e.g., scientific research, high-level management).
Metallurgy -technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties. Predates plant and animal domestication (e.g., gold, silver, copper, tin, iron,…).
Funtional Differentation -as civilizations developed and societies became more complex, so did the function and complexity of the homes and buildings (e.g., a chief’s or leader’s home would typically be larger).
Extensive Subsistence Agriculture -characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture -a form of subsistence agr. that involves effective & efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yields. Popular in E, S, & SE Asia, b/c ratio b/w farmers & arable land is high, work is done by the family, hand or animal w/ processes
Second Agricultural Revolution -precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th c., that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories. Started in UK, Netherlands, and Denmark, especially w/ the Enclosure Act, which consolidated land in GB
Little Ice Age -period of global cooling that occurred between the 16th c. and 19th c. after the Medieval Warm Period (~10th c. to 14th c.); affected the N empires of Rome & China (helped lead the Chinese to abandon overseas expeditions & focus to protect their lands).
Von Thunen Model -When choosing an enterprise, a commercial farmer compares; cost of the land vs. the cost of transporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost, distance to market is ctical; disregards site or human factors.
Luxury Crops -specialized crops typically not essential to human survival; historically grown on plantations by European colonial powers (e.g., tea, coffee, tobacco, cocoa (or cacao), …).
Staple Grains -Maize, wheat, & rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of N & S Am., Africa, & livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, & rice in tropic areas.
Biotechnology -using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops.
Commodity Chains -(e.g. agribusiness) a sequential process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and, finally, distribute them to consumers.
Hibridiztion -the cross breeding of plants of different varieties in order to produce a new plant with desirable traits from both parent varieties; the Green Revolution has popularized its use (see tudy guide)
Food Irradation (1900s) provides the same benefits as when food is processed by heat, refrigeration, or treated with chemicals to destroy insects or bacteria, that cause food to spoil or cause human disease; makes it possible to keep food longer
Unchanged-Tradional Dwelling -layout, construction, and appearance have not been significantly altered by external influences.
Modified-Traditional Dwelling -new building materials used, but no change to the original structure or layout.
Modernized-Traditional Dwelling -materials and layout have been changed (e.g. multiple bathrooms, two-car garage, aluminum siding, etc…)
Modern Dwelling -sacrifices tradition for practicality & efficiency; reflects advanced technology, comfort, affluence, and suburbanization (most common in US)
New England Housing -dating back to colonial times is of wood-frame and diffused past Wisconsin.
Mid-Atlantic Housing -style originated as a one-room log cabin with a chimney at one end diffusing into Missouri, Arkansas, and Mississippi.
Southern (Tidewater South) Housing -style was originally smaller, only one story, and a porch that diffused southward into Georgia. They were often built on a raised platform to reduce heat.
Patterns of Rural Settle -particular to the region in which they originated, or diffused to other parts of the world through diffusion and colonization.
Primogeniture -system which the eldest son in a family (or daughter if necessary) inherits all of a dying parent’s land (tradition brought by the Normans to England).
Cadastral System survey system that determines the value, extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation.
Rectangular (Public Land Survey) -US system set up to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains (e.g., Township-and-Range System).
Long Lots -houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.
Metes and Bounds -uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land. (See study guide)
Township-and-Range -U.S.A) – survey’s used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range).
Hidden Hunger -people who may consume enough calories to survive, but lack certain nutrients – specifically protein (protein deficiency in the first three years can cause permanent damage; both to mental capacity & physical growth).
Debt-for-Nature Swap -when agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources.
Egalitarian Societty -civilization in which all people are equal; typical of most hunter-gatherer societies.
Stratified Society civilization in which people exist in different classes; the development of farming and early cities began this process
Theocratic Center -focus of religious activity or importance.
Medieval Optimum -Medieval Warm Period): a time of warm weather around CE 800-1300 (Common Era – same as AD (Anno Domini) during the European Medieval period. The effect may largely have been focused in the Northern Atlantic.(see study guide)
Societal Classification -Gideon Sjoberg; cities changed over time
Feudal -arose during the Middle Ages which actually stagnated urban growth in Europe; fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants – provided few alternative economic alternatives.
Urban-Industrial -predominate in the modernized nations of Western Europe, America, Japan (and to a lesser extent where their cultures here productivity through machines, and energy sources from fossil fuels and atomic power phenomenally expand economic productivity.
Urban Banana -(crescent-shaped zone): urbanized zone that spread from India and the Far East (China & Japan) across the Islamic Empires, and into Europe; followed mostly along the silk and spice trade routes.
Medieval City -European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense (walls proved futile when gunpowder made its way into Europe by the 1300s).
Mercantile City -Atlantic maritime trade disrupted old trade routes & centers of power starting in the 1500s; central square became focus, these cities became nodes of a network of trade; brought huge riches to Europe (e.g. Lisbon, Amsterdam, London, …).
Postmodernism -(postmodern architecture) architecture & design developed for look & commerce (may connect to historical roots); a reaction to feeling of sterile alienation some had to modern architecture; city spaces become more people-friendly
Urban Hierachy -ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.(hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis)
Metropolis -usually contains several urbanized areas and suburbs that act together as a coherent economic whole
Exurb -ring of prosperous communities beyond the suburbs that are commuter towns for an urban area; began to emerge in the 1970s when rampant crime and urban decay (when part of a city falls into disrepair) in U.S. cities were the primary push factors
New Urbanism -urban design originating in the US during the 1980s to work against sprawl; characterized by organized urban planning, suburban infill (filling in unused space), and are designed to be walkable (Celebration, Florida)
Central Place Theory -explains how services are distributed and why there are distinct patterns in this distribution; organized by hexagons to eliminate unserved or overlapping market areas.
Complementary Region -the market area; an exclusive hinterland w/ a monopoly on a certain good or service.
John Borchrt's Model -recognized four epochs in the evolution of the American metropolis based on the impact of transportation & communication (see study guide)
Concentric Zone Model (1920s; Ernest Burgess) -1) CBD, 2) Zone of transition (residential deterioration & light industry), 3) Blue-collar workers, 4) Middle-class, 5) outer suburban ring; the model is dynamic (as the city grows, the inner rings encroach on the outer ones).
Sector Model (1939; Homer Hoyt) -urban growth creates a pie-shaped urban structure due to advancement of transportation like electric trolley (low-income areas could extend from the CBD to the outer edge (3) the same is true w/ high-rent, transportation, & industry.
Multiple-Nuclei Model -(1945; Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman) claimed the CBD was losing its dominant position as the nucleus of the urban area; separate nuclei become specialized and differentiated, not located in relation to any distance attribute
Basic Sector -activities and services that generate income for a city (e.g., manufacturing, retail, …).
Nonbasic Sector -work responsible for the functioning of the city itself (e.g., government, street cleaning, …).
Economic Base (basic vs. nonbasic sectors, a.k.a. employment structure) ratio of basic to nonbasic workers (nonbasic is always larger).
Multiplier Effect -(1:2 (or 1:3) for most large cities) for every worker in the basic sector, there are typically 2-3 workers in the nonbasic sector for most modern cities.
Chemical Farming increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, & potassium; the development of higher-yield crops has produced a "miracle seed" which is shorter/stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, matures faster.
Modern City Models (foreign) most residences tend to decrease in quality and value as the distance from the CBD increases:
Southeast Asian City consist of sectors and zones radiating from the port zone; influenced by colonialism and are often still focused on exporting goods
Sub-Saharan African City -consist of sectors and zones, but possess a great deal of centrality around the CBD (may contain multiple CBDs); typically have strong ethnic neighborhoods and squatter settlements on the outskirts.
Canadian City -tend to be more centralized and less suburbanized that US cities; b/c of this their inner cities tends to be much less dilapidated due to fewer wealthy people leaving them.
Eruropean City -older ones were mostly developed during the Medieval period; display less sprawl than US cities, in part since gasoline my cost up to 3-4 times more than in the US; also, some cities have greenbelts (see guide) which confine urban sprawl.
East European City -typically less affluent than Western European cities due to the communist urban planning by the USSR during the Cold War; most residential spaces were organized into microdistricts (designed to minimize cost by reducing roads and maximizing living space)
Islamic City -found in the Muslim regions; owe their structure to their religious beliefs; contain mosques, open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by walls, limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods.
Concerns of Urbanization -1) Sprawl2) Loss of soil3) Land use 4) Pollution5) Waste6) Consumption habits
Industrial Revolution -term for the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing resulting from technological innovation and specialization in the late 18th c. Europe.
E-Commerce web-based economic activities
Brick-and Mortar Industry -industry with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs; doesn’t solely exist on the internet.
Primary vs. Secondary Industrial Location -Von Thünen only had to deal with primary industries, which are obviously located adjacent to the natural resources. Secondary industries are less dependent on resource location; they deal with more variable costs such as energy, transportation, and labor
Ullman's Conceptual Frame -(Complementary, intervening opportunity, transferability)Edward Ullman proposed that trade was an interaction based on three phenomena:
Complementary -when two regions, through trade, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
Transferability -the ease (or difficulty) in which a good may be transported from one area to another.
Weber's Least Cost Theory -Alfred Weber described the optimal location of a manufacturing firm in relation to the cost of transportation, labor, and advantages through agglomeration.
Substitution Principle -losses in one area may be offset by savings in another (e.g., higher labor costs could be offset by lower taxes).
Hotelling's Model -(locational interdependence) the location of industries can’t be understood w/o reference to the location of other industries of like kind; two similar vendors would locate next to each other in the middle of a market area to maximize profit
Losch's Model -(zone of profitability) firms will identify a zone of profitability (not just a point) where income will outpace costs
Factors of Industrial Location -numerous costs are considered; some costs are transportation, labor, agglomeration, market, energy, terrain, climate, personal preference, the product itself, …
Eastern North America -strongest and most dominant since WWII
Western and Central Europe -oldest and highly urbanized
Russia and Ukraine -massively developed under communism (only primary region abundant in oil & natural gas)
Eastern Asia- -Japan’s dominance is being challenged by China (dominant in terms of low cost mass production) and the “Four Tigers” (South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore)
Secondary Instrial Regions -states and regions that have been intensely developing and urbanizing in recent decades; typically represent more semi-peripheral economies (e.g., Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, India, Australia,...).
First-Round Industrialization -SEE STUDY GUIDE
Mid-20th Century Industrialization -SEE STUDY GUIDE
Late 20th Century Industrialization and Beyond -SEE STUDY GUIDE
Lean Production -SEE STUDY GUIDE
Outsourcing -(turning over production in part or in total) to another firm or business outside of the country (offshoring - specifically refers to moving production overseas (e.g., China).
PQL (Physical Quality of Life Index) - based on literacy rate, infant mortality rate, and life expectancy at age one.
World Systems Theory (Immanuel Wallerstein) illuminated by a three-tier structure (core, semi-periphery, periphery); refers to perspective that seeks to explain the dynamics of the “capitalist world economy” as a “total social system”.(see guide)
Liberal Models -assume all countries are capable of developing economically in the same way, and 2) disparities b/w countries & regions are the result of short-term inefficiencies in local or regional markets. Walter Rostow's Modernization Model (1960s) stated countries
Structuralist Theory -economic disparities are the result of historically derived power relations w/in the global economic system; cannot be changed easily (misleading to assume all areas will go through the same process of development).
Economic Backwaters -regions that fail to gain from national economic development.
Foreign Direct Investment -investment in the economies of LDCs by transnational corporations based in MDCs. However, all countries are not recipients of this investment. Brazil, China and Mexico were the LDCs that received most of the investment.
Venture Capital -investments typically made in the early stages of developing companies in the hope of generating a favorable return through the growth or sale of the companies; generally made as cash in exchange for shares in the invested company.
Local Currency -there are over 1,000 in use in the world today; they establish Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) that allow members of a local community to trade services or goods in a local network separated from the formal economy
Backwash Effect -when one region’s economic gain translates into another region’s economic loss.
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) -see guide
NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) -see guide
Special Economic Zone (SEZ) -specific area within a country in which tax and investment incentives are implemented to attract foreign (and domestic) businesses and investment.
Export Processing Zone (EPZ) -established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract business and investment (labor is cheaper and environmental restrictions are relatively weak).
Commodification -process through which something is given monetary value (e.g., bottled water).
Glocalization -process by which people in a local pace alter regional, national, and global processes; “think globally, act locally”; can refer to a business strategy for MNCs (multinational corporations) to build local roots
Global-Local Continuum -notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa; the result of a modern and globalized world.
Vetical Integration -ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist along a variety of points on a commodity chain (e.g., Perdue Farms).
Horizontal Integration -ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist at the same point on a commodity chain (e.g., PepsiCo owns Gatorade, Frito-Lay, Quaker, ... YUM! owns Taco Bell, KFC, A&W, …).
Synergy -is the cross promotion of vertically integrated goods & services (e.g., Magic Kingdom - Frontierland Fries – hosted by McDonald’s, Mickey’s PhilharMagic – presented by Kodak …).
Gatekeepers -people or companies who control access to information (e.g., CNN, Wall Street Journal, Fox News, Al-Jazeera, …).
Market Economy -capitalist economy based on the division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free enterprise system set by supply and demand.
Mixed Economy -economic system that incorporates a mixture of private and government ownership or control, or a mixture of capitalism and socialism.
Planned Economy -see guide
Informal Economy -Informal economy: economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government (not included in GNP as the formal economy is); examples are the black market, illegal drug trade, odd jobs or work done “under the table”, and remittances
The End of Geography - hypothetical situation in which place and territory are unimportant because global superhighways of information transcend place (e.g., internet, weblogs) however, people continue to recognize territories and create places.
Created by: stepherickson