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WHI People Review

World History I People Review

Archeologists One who studies early human cultures, mainly by looking at artifacts they left behind
Lucy Hominid skeleton discovered by Donald Johanson
Neanderthals Early people who lived during the Old Stone Age. They wore animal skins, used fire, more efficient tools, and buried their dead.
Cro-Magnons Group of early people appearing about 35,000 years ago in Europe. They made even better tools and weapons, and created cave art.
Homo Sapiens Modern man
Paleolithic Society Nomadic, simple tools and weapons, used fire, lived in clans, developed oral language, created cave art
Neolithic Society Developed agriculture, domesticated animals, advanced tools and weapons, made pottery, developed weaving
Pharaoh "Great House"; Egyptian ruler's title
Menes United all of Egypt into one kingdom
Hyksos Group of people who arrived in ancient Egypt from Asia and introduced new war tools (chariot and compound bow)
Hatshepsut First known female ruler. Strong ruler who kept Egypt's borders secure and built trade with other lands
Thutmose III Hatshepsut’s stepson who brought Egypt to the height of its power through conquest and trade until his death
Amenhotep IV Tried to make Egypt monotheistic by banning all gods except the sun god, Aton. Changed his name to Akhenaton, which means "he who is pleasing to Aton"
Ramses II Called Ramses the Great. Kept the Egyptian empire together and ordered the construction of many temples and monuments
Scribes Egyptian clerks who read or wrote for those who could not do so for themselves
Cleopatra Tries to unite Egypt but is unsuccessful. Teams up with Marc Antony. Commits suicide after Octavian declares war on them. Roman Empire takes over
Tutankhamen Young boy pharaoh whose tomb was found untouched in the Valley of the Kings
Caravans Groups of people traveling together for safety over long distancesSumerians
Akkadians Semitic speaking people who conquered the Sumerians and established an empire that reached as far as the Mediterranean Sea
Babylonains Conquered the Sumerians and adopted their culture. Active traders, rights for women, created the horoscope, oldest written law code – Code of Hammurabi
Hittites Warlike people who invaded the Tigris-Euphrates Valley from Asia Minor. First to smelt iron, had a law system, allowed for religious freedom
Assyrians Semitic speaking people from North Mesopotamia who adopted Sumerian culture. Fierce effective warriors – 1st to use cavalry
Chaldeans Conquered most of the Fertile Crescent. Built many canals and buildings, skilled astronomers. Led by Nebuchadnezzar
Persians Empire stretched from Indus River to Europe. Built a road system was used to connect the Empire together. Practiced Zoroastrianism
Phoenicians Highly skilled sailors and great sailors. Invented glass blowing and purple dye and created the Phoenician Alphabet
Lydians 1st to coin money – created a money economy
Sargon Akkadian king who established an empire that reached as far west as the Mediterranean Sea
Hammurabi King of Babylon. Responsible for Hammurabi’s CodeNebuchadnezzar
Cyrus Known as “the Great”. Rebelled against Medes and captured Babylon and took over the rest of the Fertile Crescent and Asia Minor
Darius I Persian ruler who expanded its empire
Xerxes I Persian ruler who expanded its empire. Son of Darius
Zoroaster Persian religious reformer who founded Zoroastrianism
Hebrews Monotheistic people living in the Fertile Crescent who are the ancestors of modern Jews
Abraham Founder of JudaismTwelve Tribes of Israel
Moses Hebrew law-giver and prophet. Led the Israelites out of Egypt into the Promise Land. By tradition, he received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai
Saul First king of united Israel
David King who made Jerusalem the capital and a religious center
Solomon King under which Israel reached its height of its wealth and power
Harappans Earliest civilization of the Indus River Valley
Indo-Aryans Indo-European tribes who moved in slow waves into Indian about 1750 BC
Brahmins Special priests of the Indo-Aryan society who knew the proper forms and rules of their complicated religious rituals
Siddhartha Gautama Son of an Indian rajah. Philosopher, founder of Buddhism. Known as Buddha (Enlightened One)
Chandragupta Maurya First ruler to unite and govern much of India
Asoka Emperor of India’s Maurya dynasty. Converted to Buddhism; send Buddhist missionaries across Asia
Chandra Gupta II Gupta dynasty – reign brought prosperity to India. Great progress was made in the arts
Aryabhata Indian mathematician who is the first to have used algebra and solve quadratic equations
Xia Line of kings ruling over a late Neolithic people in the Huang River region of China starting in about 2000 BC
Shang Dynasty Invaders of the Huang River valley who came to power sometime between 1750 BC and 1500 BC and established the first dynasty in China
Zhou Dynasty People who overthrew the Shang dynasty of China in 1122 BC
Qin Dynasty Dynasty that came to power in China in 221 BC under which the first true empire of China was created
Han Dynasty Dynasty of rulers that ruled a centralized and growing empire in China
Cheng Founded the Qin Dynasty
Liu Bang Commoner who became a general. Overthrew the Qin Dynasty and established the Han Dynasty
Liu Ch’e Longest ruling Han emperor. Also known as Wu Ti
Confucius Chinese philosopher. Founded Confucianism, a religion based on reason rather than spirituality
Laozi Chinese philosopher and mystic. Founder of Taoism
Minoans Earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete
Mycenaeans Civilization on the Greek mainland that conquered the Minoans
Oracles Special places where ancient Greeks believed gods spoke through priests and priestesses
Hoplite Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows
Tyrants Rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people’s support
Aristocracies Greek city-states controlled by nobles
Helots Conquered people of the Peloponnesus, who became the lowest class in Spartan society
Ephors Five officials in ancient Sparta who were elected for one year terms to make sure the king stayed within the law
Metics People living in Athens who were not citizens, who could work and who paid taxes but were not allowed to own land or take part in government
Archons Rulers in ancient Athens who served one-year terms
Sparta Greek city-state with a rigid and highly militarized society
Athens Greek city-state with a democratic society where the arts and culture flourished
Draco Archon who is believed to have created Athen’s first written law code
Solon Archon who settle disputes between creditors and debtors by erasing the debts of the poor and outlawing slavery for debt
Peisistratus Ruled Athens as a tyrant. Improved its economy, but clashed with the nobles
Cleisthenes Ruler who seized power and turned Athens into a democracy
Sappho Female poet who wrote about everyday life in Greece
Sophists Athenian men who opened schools for boys to study government, mathematics, ethics, and rhetoric
Themistocles Lead the Greek’s defeat of the Persian navy at the Battle of Salamis
Pericles Athenian statesman, orator, and general. Ruled during Athen’s golden age
Myron Greek sculptor – The Discus Thrower
Phidias Greek sculptor – statues of Athena in Parthenon and Zeus at the Temple of Olympia
Praxiteles Greek sculptor – statues were lifelike and natural in form and size
Socrates Greek philosopher. Plato describes his ideas in the Dialogues. Forced to commit suicide because his teachings were thought to corrupt the young
Plato Greek philosopher; student of Socrates. Described ideal state ruled by philosophers
Aristotle Greek philosophers, pupil of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great
Pythagoras Greek philosopher who believed that everything could be explained through mathematics – developed the Pythagorean theorem
Hippocrates Considered the founder of modern medical science – taught that disease comes from natural causes, not as punishment from the gods; believed rest, fresh air, and proper diet were the best cures
Herodotus First historian of the Western world; called the Father of History – traveled and wrote about the countries and cultures he encountered
Sophocles Playwright who wrote tragedies in which he defended many traditional Greek values – wrote Oedipus Rex
Euripides Playwright who wrote tragedies that questioned many old beliefs and ideas; wrote The Trojan Women about the pain and misery of war
Aristophanes Playwright of comedies – wrote Clouds
Philip II of Macedon King of Macedon; spend 3 years as a hostage in Thebes where he learned Greek culture; organized a strong army to conquer Greece; father of Alexander the Great
Demosthenes Athenian orator who criticized Philip II of Macedon
Alexander the Great King of Macedonia. Conquered Persia and created vast, short-lived empire that reached to India
Zeno Established the Stoic philosophy in Athens – believed every person had some “spark” of the divine within and the only way to achieve happiness is by following this spark
Epicurus Founder of the Epicurean philosophy – the aim of life is to seek pleasure and avoid pain
Euclid Developed geometry
Archimedes Calculated pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, invented the compound pulley and Archimedes screw
Aristarchus Taught that the earth and other planets moved around the sun
Eratosthenes Calculated the distance around the earth
Aeschylus Playwright who wrote tragedies about religion and the relationship between gods and people
Latins Earliest settles of Rome – established Latium and lived in small villages along the Tiber River
Etruscans Conquered the Latins – had a written language, built well planed cities, created jewelry and fine clothing, skilled in metal, pottery, and wood
Dictator Absolute ruler
Consuls Chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome
Praetors Elected Roman officials who helped the consuls
Censors Roman officials who registered citizens according to their wealth
Tribunes Officials elected by Rome’s popular assemblies
Patricians Powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society
Plebeians Farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population
Hannibal Carthaginian general. Fought Second Punic War against Rome
Scipio Roman general who defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama
Spartacus Gladiator who led a slave rebellion against Rome
Gladiators In Ancient Rome, a man who fought other men or animals to entertain the public
The Gracchi Two brothers, Tiberus and Gaius Gracchus, who saw the need for reform in the Roman Republic
Gaius Marius Roman general who reformed the army by creating an army of volunteers who were well rewarded with money and land
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Marched on Rome; ruled as a dictator; enlarged the Senate by 300 members and gave it complete control over the government
Julius Caesar Roman general, statesmen, and writer. Conquered Gaul and ruled as dictator of Roman Republic until his murder
Gnaeus Pompey Roman general; part of the First Triumvirate
Cleopatra Daughter of the Ptolemy family; placed on the throne of Egypt by Casear
Marc Antony Roman general; part of the Second Triumvirate; teamed up with Cleopatra, committed suicide
Augustus (Octavian) First emperor of Rome. Reformed administration and promoted culture
Julio-Claudian Emperors Relatives of Caesar who ruled for 54 years of the Pax Romana following the death of Augustus
Five Good Emperors Five rulers who led Rome for almost 100 years during the Pax Romana
Galen Roman physician who wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day
Ptolemy Astronomer – developed the Ptolemaic System – belief that the sun, planets, and stars revolved around the earth
Virgil Roman poet – wrote the Aeneid about Aeneas, a prince of Troy
Horace Roman poet – wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles (letters)
Ovid Roman poet – wrote love lyrics and the Metamorphoses
Tacitus Roman historian who wrote Annals, a history of Rome under the Julio-Claudian emperors
Plutarch Wrote Parallel Lives, a collection of Greek and Roman biographies
Rabbis Teacher of Jewish law; spiritual head of a congregation
Martyrs Persons put to death for their beliefs
Bishops Heads of the Catholic Church in major cities
Patriarchs Senior of chief bishop in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Pope Title assumed by the patriarch of Rome and head of the Catholic Church; from the Latin word meaning “father”
Jesus Jewish religious teacher. Believed by Christians to be Son of God and Savior of Mankind. Crucified for treason against Rome
Paul Christian apostle and missionary who spread the teachings of Jesus to the gentiles
Disciples Followers of Jesus
Diocletian Roman general made emperor in 284 AD; divided the Roman empire in two – ruled the eastern part; controlled all aspects of life, drove out invaders and ended lawlessness, tried unsuccessfully to control the economy
Constantine Emperor of Rome; made Christianity the empire’s official religion; moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople
Goths One of a group of Germanic tribes who flooded into the Roman Empire and later revolted, weakening the empire
Vandals One of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman Empire
Huns Nomadic people from Asia who attacked the Roman Empire
Attila Fierce Han leader who conquered Gaul
Kush Early African kingdom along the Nile River; conquered and ruled Egypt for 50 years before being expelled; conquered by the Aksum
King Ezana Aksum king who conquered the Kush and establish an Aksum kingdom
Aksum African kingdom located in the Ethiopian Highlands
Swahili African society that emerged in the late 1100s along the East African coast and combined elements of African, Asian, and Islamic cultures
Zimbabwe African kingdom in south Africa, located between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers; capital city known as Great Zimbabwe
Ghana Earliest west African kingdom
Mali West African kingdom; capital city was Timbuktu – center for trade and learning
Songhai West African kingdom; capital city Gao was an important trade city located on the Niger River
Mansa Musa Ruler of Mail. Made hajj to Mecca and brought back Muslim scholars to Mali
Sonni ‘Ali Captured Timbuktu and established the Songhai kingdom
Mohammad I Askia King of Songhai and excellent administrator. Made Timbuktu a center of Muslim scholarship
Ibn Battuta Arab traveler who left an account of his journeys and the places he visited
Olmec Earliest culture of Mexico, beginning in about 1200 BC
Maya One of the most advanced early people in the Americas, occupying most of the Yucatan Peninsula
Aztec Wandering warriors who gradually came to rule central Mexico
Inca Civilization in the Andes Mountains in South America that by the end of the 1400s included much of what is now Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile
Iconoclasts People who opposed the use of icons in worship
Justinian Byzantine emperor. Responsible for codification of laws named after him
Theodora Wife of Justinian; served as an advisor to Justinian and helped improve the status of women
Belisarius General of the Byzantine army; crushed the Nika Revolt
Cyril & Methodius Greek scholars and missionaries. Developed the Cyrillic Alphabet and spread Christianity among the Slavs
Ottoman Turks Asian people who conquered Constantinople in the 1300s and established a large empire
Boyars Russian noble
Rurik Leader of the Rus; took control of Novgrod and ruled over Kiev and the Slavic tribes
Rus People led by Rurik who cam to rule Kiev and the Slavic tribes along the Dnieper River
Yaroslav the Wise Russian ruler who built many churches and introduced Russia’s first law code (Pravda Russkia)
Vladimir I Russian ruler who converted to Christianity and tried to force Kievans to convert; had all pagan statues destroyed
Czar Title taken by Ivan the Terrible; Russian for “Caesar”
Vladimir Monomakh Russian ruler whose reign saw a brief revival of Kiev; lead attacks against the Polovsty
Polovtsy Turkish people who controlled the area south of Kiev
Ivan III Ivan the Great – became the first ruler of the independent state called Russia
Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible – 1st czar of Russia, modernized the legal code, cruel and brutal leader
Bedouins Nomadic Arab herders of sheep and camel
Muhammad Arab prophet and religious leader; founded Islam. His teachings are recorded in the Quran. Proclaimed himself the messenger of Allah
Muslims Followers of the religion of Islam
Caliph Title meaning “successor to the Prophet” used in government and religion in Islamic society
Imams Spiritual leaders who, according to some Shi’ah Muslims, should be direct descendants of Muhammad
Sultan Muslim ruler
Abu Bakr Chosen as Muhammad’s successor; given title of caliph; helped unite Arabic tribes
‘Umar Succeeded Abu Bakr as caliph; continued to expand the Islamic empire
Sunni One of two branches of Islam; its members accept the first four caliphs as successors of Muhammad
Shi’ah One of two branches of Islam; its members reject the authority of the caliphs who succeeded Calif Ali
Sufi Muslim mystics who tried to live simple lives
Rabi’ah al-Adawiyah The 1st female Sufi mystic
Tariq Berber general who led a Muslim army into Spain and conquered it
Moors Muslims who made Spain their home in the 700s AD
Al-Razi Arab chemist and physician. His written works include a medical encyclopedia and a handbook of diseases
Ibn Sina Persian physician and philosopher. Wrote work that was standard medical text until 1500
Al-Idrisi Muslim geographer – created new, more accurate maps
Kami Japanese gods or nature spirits
Shogun Military governor of Japan
Samurai Member of a military class in feudal Japan who owed loyalty to a daimyo
Daimyo Japanese feudal lord who led an army of samurai
Fujwara First family to gain control over the central government in Japan
Lady Murasaki Shikibu Japanese poet who wrote The Tale of Genji about Prince Genji – world’s 1st novel and literary masterpiece
Kublai Khan Mongol emperor. Founded Yuan dynasty in China, which flourished under his rule
Franks Germanic tribe that created an empire encompassing present-day France and much of the neighboring areas
Clovis Frankish king who established the Merovingian line; converted to Christianity
Merovingians Clovis and his successors, who were generally weak Frankish rulers who left the job of governing to palace officials
Charles Martel Charles the Hammer – Frankish king who defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours
Carolingians Line of Frankish rulers established by Pepin III’s coronation
Charlemagne King of the Franks; founder of the Holy Roman Empire
Louis the Pious King of France and Catholic Saint, noted for his wisdom and his piety
Magyars Nomadic group who invaded Europe; eventually settled in what is now Hungary
Angle-Saxons Germanic tribes that established several independent kingdoms in England
Vikings Germanic people from Scandinavia who often raided western Europe
Lord A person who grants land to a vassal in a feudalism
Vassal Feudal tenant who held land from a lord in return for military and other service
Knight Mounted warrior
Serf Peasant tied to his lord’s land
Cardinals A high officer in the Roman Catholic Church who participates in the election of a new pope
Abbot Head of a monastery who controlled and distributed all property
Abbess Head of a convent who served a role similar to an abbot
Heretics People who denied the truth of the official church’s principles or who preached beliefs not approved by the church
Saint Benedict Founder of Western monasticism and of Benedictine Order
Hildegard of Bingen German nun who wrote religious music and medical text; founded the convent at Rubertsburg and served as its first abbess
Saint Patrick Credited for bring Christianity to Ireland
Saint Augustine Led a group of monks to England; became Achbishop of Canterbury, the center of the Christian church in England
William the Conqueror Won the Battle of Hastings and gains control of land in England and France
Henry II Married Eleanor of Aquitaine and ruled over England and half of France
Eleanor of Aquitaine Married Henry II and brought half of the land in France to the marriage
King John Weak English king who was forced to sign the Magna Carta
King Richard I English king who fought in the Crusades. Known as Richard The Lionheart
King Edward I King of England who strengthens the monarchy and creates the Model Parliament
Hugh Capet Established the Capetian Dynasty in France. Weak king chosen by French nobles
Philip II (France) French king who strengthened the monarchy through the use of bailiffs
Philip IV French king who creates the Estates General
Charles VII French king who ascends the throne with the help of Joan of Arc. Creates France's first permanent army, a Royal Council, and taxes land and salt to generate revenue
Louis XI French king known as "the spider king" who used trickery, bribery, and a spy network. Expand France to include Burgundy and did not use the Estates General
Frederick Barbarossa Holy Roman Emperor who led an army during the 3rd Crusade – drowned on the way to the Holy Land and his army turned back
Seljuq Turks Muslim people from central Asia who gained control of Palestine, or the Holy Land to Christians, during the late 1000s
Urban II Pope who gave a speech that launched the 1st Crusade
Saladin Muslim leader during the Crusades
Apprentice One who learns a skill under a master
Journeyman Skilled worker who was paid wages by a master
Middle Class Class of skilled workers between the upper class and the poor unskilled workers
Troubadours Traveling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages
Dante Alighieri Wrote the Divine Comedy - written in the vernacular about the faults he saw in Italian society
Geoffrey Chaucer Wrote The Canterbury Tales - written in the vernacular and poked fun at society and the clergy
Peter Abelard Important philosopher of scholasticism. His book Sic et Non raised many questions about the church's teachings
Thomas Aquinas Great medieval philosopher - He was a monk who wrote Summa Theologiae which summarized medieval Christian thought
Henry Tudor English king who appoints many advisors from the middle class, uses local government, taxes land to gain revenue, avoids war, and creates the Star Chamber. England prospers under his reign
Joan of Arc French heroine and martyr. Helped the French to win the 100 Years War. Captured and burned as a heretic. Proclaimed a saint by the Catholic Church in 1920
Ferdinand & Isabella Spanish monarchs who unified Aragon and Castile, financed Columbus’ expedition to America, defeated the Moors, and expelled the Jews from Spain
Charles V (Spain) King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor – divided the vast lands among members of his family
Philip II (Spain) Spanish king who expanded the kingdom of Spain by annexing Portugal
Mongols Asian power who invaded Russia
Genghis Khan Mongol warrior. Founder of a huge Mongol empire in northern China and Central Asia
Francesco Petrarch Renaissance scholar, poet, and humanist
Niccolo Machiavelli Italian political philosopher and diplomat. Author of The Prince, which describes how an amoral prince can retain power. The “ends justify the means”
Leonardo da Vinci Italian artists and scientist. Famous as painter of Mona Lisa
Michelangelo Italian sculptor, architect, and painter. Best known for painting the ceiling of Rome’s Sistine Chapel
Johannes Gutenberg German printer who invented the printing press
Desiderius Erasmus Dutch humanist and church reformer. Translated New Testament from Greek to Latin and wrote In Praise of Folly
Thomas Moore Wrote Utopia about an ideal society
William Shakespeare English playwright and poet. Widely held to be one of world’s greatest writers in any language. Author of 36 plays, 152 sonnets, and several longer poems
Medici Family Rich family that served as the first bankers and rulers of Florence
Martin Luther Christian monk who wanted to reform the Catholic Church; was thrown out by Catholic Church; founded the Lutheran Church
Patron Wealthy person who gave money in the support of the arts
Created by: Jrafter