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AP HUMAN FINAL LIST

Review of all words I wasn't quite completely familiar with

QuestionAnswer
Azimuthal Map Type of map, generally viewed from a pole
Peters Map Map designed close to the Mercator map but with skinnier continent
Fuller Map Map with folds
Choropleth Map Map that is shaded darker to indicare more people
Cartogram Map that distorts shape to show population
Mercator Map Flat map
Robinson Map Most widely-used and common map, with circular edges
GIS System of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data
GPS System used to determine one's exact placement on Earth
Remote Sensing Acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from another long-distance method
Pattison's Four Tradition Location, culture-environment, area-analysis, and earth-science
Five Themes of Geogrpahy Location, Human/ Environmental, Interaction, Region, Place, and Movement
Cultural Landscape Theory formed by Carl Sauer, The visible imprint of human activity on the landscape; the "man-made" part of the environment
Sequent Occupants Successive cultures leave imprints Ex. St. Augustine
Contagious Diffusion Rapid,widespread diffusion of a characterist through out the population
Stimulus Diffusion Spread of an underlying principle, even though a characterist itself appears to have failed (may take a long time to diffuse) Ex: IBM mouse
Transculturation Region takes in culture of immigrants Ex:sushi
Holocene Epoch Began 12,000 years ago and is the time period we are currently in that is between the last ice age and the next one to come
Interglaciation Time period of warmer temperatures
1st Agricultural Hearth (12,000 years ago) domestication of plants and animals
Social Straitification hierachy in society Ex: social cast in India
Cultural Hearths Fertile Cresent, Indus Valley, Chang abd Yellow River Valley (China), Nile River Valley and Delta, Meso-American
Arithmetic Density Total number of objects in an area Ex: 4,000 Non-Ex: 4,000 per sq. unit
Physiological Density # of people per unit of area suitable for agricultue
Major Population Concentrations East Asia, South, Europe, North America, Nile Valley
Language Hierarchy Family, Branch, Group, Language, Dialect, Accent
Standard Language variant of a language that a country’s intellectual or politically elite seek to promote as the norm Ex: King's English
Isogloss geographical boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs Ex: wicked
Sound Shift slight change in a word across related languages from the present backward toward its origin
Deep Reconstruction technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
Language Divergence when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language, and continued isolation causes new languages to be formed
Language Converenge collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages
Language Replacement obliteration of an entire culture through war, disease, assimilation, or any combination of the three
Conquest/Agriculture Theory theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the speakers’ overpowering of earlier inhabitants through warfare and technology (e.g., fighting on horseback). Its hearth is around modern day Ukraine.
Nostratic is a proposed language family (sometimes called a macrofamily or a superfamily) that includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia including the Indo-European, Uralic and Altaic as well as Kartvelian languages
Hispanicization Process whereby the number of Hispanics is increasing in the U.S.; currently the largest minority group in the U.S
Esperanto constructed international language developed in the late 1880s and promoted after World War I to be a universal second language (lingua franca) to foster peace
Pidgin Language when parts of two or more languages are combined in simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue of a region and/or people
Official Language in multilingual states the language selected, often by the elite, to promote internal cohesion.
Syncretic Religion New religion that is a mix of others
Religion Hierarchy Branch, Demonination, Sect
Ideograms symbols used as word
3 Universalizing Religions Chirtianity, Islam, Buddhism
Proselytize Relgion tries to convert people to its religion Ex:
Pogodas In the Buddist religon, house relicts of Budda
Pilgrimage Trip of any kind for religious purposes Ex: Muslims traveling to Mecca
Undocumented Immigrants Immigrants who travel into a country illegally
Friction of Distance People are more likely to move to a place that is near than a place that is far
Quota The number of people allowed in a country over an amount of time
Demography Scientific study of popluation characteristics
Crude Birth Rate # of births in a year for every 1,000 people
Crude Death Rate # of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people
Natural Increase The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Remittance sending money back to home country
Mosque a place for prayer in the Islam religion
Temporary Refugee Are supposed to return to homeland after emergency ends
Dowry Deaths sometimes due to arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom have, in some extreme cases, led to the killing (or driving to suicide) of the bride by the groom or his family
Infanticides intentionally causing the death of an infant; occurs in peripheral and poor regions as a form of pop. control or as a sex-selective practice (One-Child Policy of China has led to larger female infant mortality rates & abandonment due preference of male)
Nation-State 90% of people in the state are of one nation
Enclave territory whose geographical boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory
Exclave a territory legally attached to another territory with which it is not physically contiguous
Shatterbelt A region cut between two opposing cultural or political forces Ex: Israel
Organic No pesticides used in foods
Counter Migration Returning back to the country of origin
Transhumance Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and valley
Race Person's skin color
Ethnicity Identity within a group of people bound by a common ancestry or culture
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Infant Mortality The total number od deaths in a year amount infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a sociiety
Maternal Mortality Rate Annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births
Melanin Chemical in skin causing skin pigmentation
Genotype Gene make up
Phenotype Physical charcteristics
Fundamentalism literal interpretation and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (usually religious; many can take these beliefs to an extreme and even violent
Extremism actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common moral standards
Jihadism jihad means "struggle" and is a religious duty of Muslims; some can take their "jihad" to an extreme and violent level often against a perceived threat to their way of life or culture
Jainism religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life.
Judaism religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life.
Sikhism is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India and locate primarily between India and Pakistan today. The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū
Mormonism a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is practiced around the world, but is concentrated in Utah
Shintoism said to be the way of god. It is the native religion of Japan and once its state religion, combining elements of Buddhism and local religions; involves the worship of kami. It was very popular prior to WWII, but has lost much of its dominance in Japan
Amnism Belief that inanimate objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and life. Common in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, Native American and even Shintoism is very annamistic
Shamanism This is the range of traditional beliefs and practices that claim the ability to cure, heal, and cause pain to people
Confucianism Developed by earlier Chinese man Confucius, it’s a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought. This is important to HG because it has affected Chinese Civilizations tremendously
Taoism religion founded by Lao-Tsu and based on his book titles “Book of the Way”; focused on proper political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.
Sex-Ratio the number of males per 100 females in the population
Thomas Malthus (1766-1843) English economist, demographer, and cleric who suggested that unless self-control, war, or natural disaster checks population, it will inevitably increse faster than will the food supplies needed to sustain it. Known as Malthusianism.
Neo-Malthusians The advocacy of population control programs to preserve and improve general national prosperity and well-being.
Feng Shui Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, cities. Structures and objects are positioned in a way (often in line with the compass lines) to channel flows of energy in favorable ways
Buddhism The third of the world’s major universalizing religions. It has over 360 million adherents especially in China and Southeast Asia.
Budda (Prince Siddartha) had a vision while sitting under the Bodhi (awakening) tree, then founded Buddhism in the 6th c. BCE (in eastern India) against the caste system; branched off from Hinduism.
Buddhists Buddhists believe all life is dukkha (nothing permanent); seek to achieve nirvana (enlightenment); believe in no named deity, but do believe in god; cultural landscape contains statues of Buddha, pagodas & shrine
5 Pilars of Islam 1) shahada (creed), 2) frequent prayer (toward Mecca), 3) Ramadan, almsgiving, 5) hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca);
Sharia Law Sharia law is the system of Islamic law (based on interpretation of the Qu'ran);
Hijab the need for women to cover themselves (burkas cover women entirely except for the eyes)
Islam means submission to the will of god-Allah; monotheistic religion originating w/ the teachings of Muhammad in the Qu'ran, It is the 2nd largest relig. in the world (fastest growing), has impacted the world greatly, esp. in N. Africa, “Middle East”.
Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, & India 1/2 of the world’s 1.1 billion Muslims live in these 4 countries outside the Middle East
2 Major Branches of Islam Sunni and Shiah (Shiites believe in the infallibility of imams; are concentrated mostly in Iran and eastern Iraq)
Christianity monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesusas presented in the New Testament. It is the most popular religion in the world (1.3 bil); 3 denominations-orthodox (old), catholic (largest with and reichesr), protestant (new)
Protestant Reformation weakened the Vatican's control of Europe and gave rise to secularism in the West
Buddhists believe all life is dukkha (nothing permanent); seek to achieve nirvana (enlightenment); believe in no named deity, but do believe in god
Unitary State a state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
Federal State group or body of members are bound together with a governing representative head. Federalism is the system in which the power to govern is shared between the national & state governments. Considered the most geographically expressive of all states
Rimland Theory (Nicholas Spykman) mid 20th c. theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia (the “rimland”) would provide the base for world conquest (not the “heartland”)
Heartland Theory (Halford Mackinder) early 20th c. theory that claimed whichever state controlled the resource-rich “heartland” of East Euro could dominate the world; & that not the UK (ocean-based empire), but Russia (communist) would achieve this dominance
Forward Capital a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons; sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state (e.g., Brasília, Washington D.C.).
Capital City principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country
Centrepetal forces that unify a state – national culture, shared ideological objectives, common faith,...
Centrifugal forces that unify a state – national culture, shared ideological objectives, common faith,...
Definition (Boundary) legal document or treaty drawn up to specify actual points in the landscape
Delimitation (Boundary) cartographers put the boundary on the map
Demarcation boundary is actually marked on the ground w/ wall, fence, posts,… (too expensive or impractical for most borders to be demarcated)
Geometric Boundary straight-line, unrelated to physical or cultural landscape, lat & long (US/Canada)
Physical/Natural-Political Boundary conform to physiologic features (Rio Grande: US/Mexico; Pyrenees: Spain/France)
Cultural-Political Boundary mark breaks in the human landscape (Armenia/Azerbaijan)
Genesis Boundary origin-based classification of boundaries
Antecedent Boundary existed before the cultural landscape emerged (e.g., Malaysia/Indonesia)
Subsequent/Consequent Boundary developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the cultural landscape (e.g., US/Mexico)
Super-Imposed Bounday placed by powerful outsiders on a developed landscape, usually ignores pre-existing cultural-spatial patterns (e.g., Indonesia/Papua New Guinea; Haiti/Dominican Republic)
Relict Boundary has ceased to function, but its imprint can still be detected on the cultural landscape (e.g., North/South Vietnam, East/West Berlin)
Definitional Dispute focus on legal language (e.g. median line of a river: water levels may vary)
Locational Dispute definition is not in dispute, the interpretation is; allows mapmakers to delimit boundaries in various ways
Operational Dispute neighbors differ over the way the boundary should function (migration, smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico)
Alocational Dispute disputes over rights to natural resources (gas, oil, water) (e.g., Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, in part, due to a dispute over oil rights regarding the Ramallah oil field (mostly in Iraq but straddling into Kuwait)
EU union of 27 democratic states of Europe; began w/ the formation of Benelux by end of WWII, then w/ the formation of the Euro Eco Comm years later. The EU's act. cover most areas of public policy: economic policy, foreign affairs, defense, agr. & trade
UN established at the end of WWII to foster international security and cooperation (192 member states); precursor was the League of Nations that went defunct at the beginning of WWII. Has many subsidiaries such as the Security Council, World Health Org.)
NATO a military alliance of western democracies begun in 1949 with 28 member states today; its members agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
Created by: stepherickson