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Common UA Tests

PHYSICAL EVALUATION Color; Clarity; Specific Gravity
CHEMICAL EVALUATION Blood; Bilirubin; Glucose; Ketones; Leukocyte esterase; pH; Protein; Nitrite; Urobilinogen
Color Abnormal colors that re clinically significant result from blood melanin, bilirubin, or urobilin in the sample
Clarity Turbidity may be the result of chyle, fat, bacteria, RBCs, WBCs, or precipitated crystals
Specific Gravity Variation in this indicator of dissolved solids in the urine is normal; inconsistencies suggest renal tubule involvement or ADH deficiency
Blood Hematuria ma be the result of hemorrhage, infection, or trauma
Bilirubin Aids in differentiating obstructive jaundice from hemolytic jaundice, which will not cause increased bilirubin in the urine
Glucose Glucosuria could be the result of diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, or ingestion of a large amount of carbohydrates
Ketones Occurs in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation
Leukocyte esterase Certain white cells (neutrophils) in abundance indicate urinary tract infection
pH Variations in pH indicate changes in acid - base balance, which is normal; loss of ability to vary pH is indicative of tissue breakdown
Protein Proteinuria is an indicator of renal disorder, such as injury and renal tube dysfunction
Nitrite Positive result suggests bacterial infection but is only significant on first-morning specimen or urine incubated in bladder for at least 4 hours
Urobilinogen Occurs in increased amounts when patient has hepatic problems or hemolytic disorders
Microscopic Evaluation Analysis of urinary sedimnet reveals status of the urinary tract, hematuria pyuria, and presence of casts and tissue cells are pathologic indicators
Created by: kmaresco