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Ch.21Blood vessels

Blood vessels and hemodynamics

largest artery in the body aorta
small network of capillaries in the smooth muscle layer of the vessel vasa vasorum
three layers to a blood vessel Tunia intama/interna, media (smooth muscle), and externa (expansive connective tissue and elastic fibers).
2 types of arteries Elastic (>1 cm. diameter, recoil. ex:aorta) and Muscular (mostly tunica media/smooth muscle, ex:brachial)
what are the layers like in arteries? Intama just a few cell layers thick. Media the largest.
Layers in arterioles? Other name? Thin intama (a few cell layers thick) and one or two cell layers thick of media. "Resistance vessels" because they regulate how much blood goes into capillaries.
Layers and types of capillaries. Other name? 1 cell layer thick intama adhering to basement membrane (on outside). Types: Continuous (skeletal and smooth muscle, brain, lungs), Fenestrated (brain and kidneys), and Sinusoidal (liver, glands, spleen).
Layers in venules. Function? T. interna and T. media. WBC emigration.
Layers of veins. Thin T. interna and t. media. Thick externa.
Describe valves in veins. Valves point toward the heart. Don't like pressure.
Valvular defect. Vericose veins (congenital or from mechanical stress/prolonged standing) caused from leaking venous valves allowing back flow of blood from the deep veins to superficial veins. Moving and exercise help prevent.
Double sets of veins that escort arteries and connect to one another via venous channels. Anastomosis.
Difference between systolic and diastolic numbers. Why significant? Pulse pressure. High number might mean open ductus arteriosis.
4 types of shock. Hypovolemic (decreased blood volume), cardiogenic (defunct pump), vascular (inappropriate vasodialation), obstructive (blood flow stopped = embolism?)
What is shock? Failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver sufficient oxygen to meet the body's needs.
Homeostatic response to shock. 1)Activation of sympathetic ANS (vasoconstriction, increased BP, increased contractility, increased epi and norepi.2)Secretion of antidiuretic hormone.3)Release of local vasodilators.
Pre-hypertension is what currently? 126/86
Created by: 741879016



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