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ANSC Final Review

QuestionChoicesAnswer
the single foodstuff consumed in the greatest amount by people around the world is: a. beef b. chicken c. maize d. soybeans c. maize
as presented in class "urban isolation" refers to: a: lack of public "connector trails" for city people to enjoy b. a lack of transportation to move food from where it is plentiful to where it is needed c. city people not understanding or appreciating what it takes to produce their food c. city people not understanding or appreciating what it takes to produce their food
about what percent of the US population is free to pursue other careers and personal interests because US farmers are producing enough food that they don't usually have to worry about where their next meal will come from? a. less than 5% b. 35% c. 75% d. More than 95% d. More than 95%
movie stars are always the most knowledgeable about scientific matters, and that's why they are often hired to be spokes people regarding matters of public interest True/False False
Humans are so dominant on our planet that we no longer have reason to fear or worry about being harmed by any other animal True/False False
In return for the above, humans generally provide animals with: a. food b. shelter c. healthcare d. all of the above d. all of the above
Throughout out known history, which of the following has mankind used animals for? a. clothing b. draft power c. food d. all of the above d. all of the above
a "science" represents facts and truths devoid of emotions and feelings True/False True
What term was initially coined to describe the use of living organisms to produce or manufacture products for our use? Biotechnology
What term describes out obligation to provide the basic needs for animals that we confine such that they can't provide for themselves? Husbandry
What term describes those species of animals that have generally been tamed to live in peace with humans? Domesticated
Define the word livestock: domesticated animals that humans raise and are used as a commodity to sell or trade
What does borborygmus mean? stomach growl
why are we having more incidences of wild animals being seen in urban areas? as urban areas grow they encroach on the habitat of wild animals
The first FDA approved biotechnology product was used to: a. control aggression in sows b. increase milk production in dairy cows c. improved growth weight of beef calves d. reduce abortion rates in mares b. increase milk production in dairy cows
what percent of the US population produces all the fool for the rest of us? a. 5% b. 10% c. 20% d.less than any of the above d. less than any of the above
NAFTA is a legal agreement that affects: a. commerce with neighboring countries b. buying and selling waterways c. wildlife migration d. use of abandoned railroad right-of-way a. commerce with neighboring countries
Meat is consumed primarily as a high quality source of protein True/False True
Ruminant animals can digest plant material that humans can't digest, but in doing so, they convert that plant material into something we humans can digest. True/False True
What of the following is not contained in milk? a. energy b minerals c. protein d. all of the above are contained in milk d. all of the above
Animal "rights" and animal "welfare" mean essentially the same thing True/False False
The world views US citizens as relativley major consumers in the world's vast natural resources. True/False True
What percent of the US consumer's income is spent on food? a. 75% b. 50% c. 25% d. 10% d. 10%
As presented in class, for which of the following does the US not rank in the top 3 or 4 in the world for their production? a. swine b. sheep c. horses d. cattle b. sheep
what country leads the world in the production of most every common species of livestock (the only exception being cattle)? a. india b. brazil c. china d. united states c. china
California ranks highest in the production of: a. all agricultural products b. all livestock c. cattle and calves d. dairy e. sheep f. swine a. all agricultural products and d. dairy
A stocker operator would be expected to purchase: a. animals that have gained weight eating grass b. breeding animals c. finished animals d. recently weaned animals d. recently weaned animals
A cow-calf operator would be expected to purchase: a. animals that have gained weight eating grass b. breeding animals c. finished animals d. recently weaned animals b. breeding animals
A packer would be expected to purchase: a. animals that have gained weight eating grass b. breeding animals c. finished animals d. recently weaned animals c. "finished" animals
A Feeder would be expected to purchase a. animals that have gained weight eating grass b. breeding animals c. finished animals d. recently weaned animals a. Animals that have gained weight eating grass
which segment of the beef cattle industry is least likely to sell their animals simply by how much they weigh (by the pound or hundred weight)?: a. Feeder operation b. cow-calf operation c. stocker operation d. seed stock operation d. seed stock operation
in regard to the US beef cattle industry, Alabama is considered primarily a: a. Stocker state b. Packer state c. Feeder state D. cow-calf state d. cow-calf state
As a general rule, heifers are normally: a. bred at 24mo and calve at 36mo b. Bred at 15mo and calve at 24mo c. Bred at 10mo and calve at 15mo d. Bred at 6mo and calve at 12mo b. Bred at 15mo an calve at 24mo
the term dystocia refers to: a. calving outside the normal season b. Preconditioning c. Improper vaccination technique d. difficulty giving birth d. Difficulty giving birth
Stocker operators primarily feed their animals: a. corn and soybeans b. Milk c. Grass d. Nothing, they're just on growth promotants c. Grass
Stocker operations are popular because stockered animals can go to market quicker and at a younger age. True/False False
Heifers grow faster than steers True/False False
About how much does an average beef calf weigh when it's born? a. 80-100lbs b. 55-75lbs c. 40-50lbs d. 20-25lbs a. 80-100lbs
What country leads the world in pounds of meat produced from sheep? a. Argentina b. Australia c. China d. Brazil c. China
sheep numbers in the US are currently at an all time record high due to the growing popularity of high-quality wool clothing True/False False
Recent removal of a government subsidy for wool, that used to set a minimum market price, has reduced sheep producer profits. True/False True
What is the traditional target weight for market lambs? a. 200lbs b. 160lbs c. 120lbs d. 80lbs c. 120lbs
As presented in class, which of the following sheep breeds would be used in a crossbreeding program to enhance milk production in the mother ewes of subsequent generations? a. Suffolk b. Hampshire c. Dorset d. Columbia c. Dorset
As presented in class, why are the most labor-intensive management practices performed at the "winter headquarters"? a. cheaper labor b. closer to veterinarian c. less travel back and forth d. electricity d. Electricity
As presented in class, a "club lamb" refers to a lamb that: a. has stiff club-like legs b. is cared for by a 4-H club member c. has very fine wool d. stays close to its friends b. is cared for by a 4-H club member
On a sheep operation, the term "jug" refers to: a. a container for "sheep dip" medicine b. container for storing excess colostrum c. little wagon herdsmen lives in to follow flocks d. small pen for lambing d. small pen for lambing
The word "gregarious" means: a. digestive disorder from switching feeds b. hybrid vigor c. tendency for animals to stay close together d. likely to be eaten by a predator if not protected c. tendency for animals to stay together
In range flocks, which ewes are usually moved to the new grassy areas first? a. lame ones b. ones nursing twin lambs c. the older ones with bad teeth d. younger ones still trying to grow and nurse b. the ones nursing twins
what terms describes the act of giving birth in cattle? calving
What does "BLM" stand for Bureau of Land Management
What general term describes all the stuff lost in transport as "shrink" that reduces an animal's weight during shipping? Fill
what term describes animals that were once domesticated but have returned to a wild state? feral
what does the abbreviation "BSE" stand for? breeding soundness evaluation
what non-food animal product was important for lubrication prior to the development of petroleum-based lubricants tallow/lard
what is the proper names for a large group of sheep? flock
what is the Genus name for cattle? Bos
If you select a breeding bull that is known to sire small-sized calves, in order to minimize the chance of difficult births in heifers, what other genetic trait of the bull would then also be important to consider? how quickly the bull can put on weight. so once the calf is born it can quickly gain weight to grow to a more normal size
Name one of the three factors that affect cow-calf profitability, and briefly explain how it figures into the profit loss calculation. Number of Calves born: you want the majority of your cows to calve in the fall/spring
Why are farmers often forced to sell their products even when the market is low and they lose money? agricultural products are perishable and cannot be stockpiled. Therefore farmers but sell their products instead of waiting on a better market to sell.
what is of least concern of most US citizens a. safety b. healthcare c. quality of life d. where their next meal will come from d. where their next meal will come from
the primary objective of most of today's mass print media seems to be to: a. report the whole truth b. sell more magazines and papers b. sell more magazines and papers
Because of the Property Rights Act, all land owners are completely free to do whatever they want on any property they own True/False False
Agricultural products are often marketed under special government laws because they are perishable and cannot be stockpiled or stored for long periods of time hoping for better markets True/False True
G.A.T.T stands for a. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade b. Government Agricultural Trade Taxes c. Group Agricultural Trade Talks a. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
The founders of PETA believe it is okay to exhibit animals in zoos and wildlife parks as long as it is for educational purposes True/False False
Omnivores consume food of: a. Animal origin only b. Animal and Plant origin c. Plant origin only d. None of the above b. Animal and Plant origin
When included in the human diet, meat is a relatively good source of: A. High-density lipoproteins b. Potassium c. Vitamins in the B series d. Vitamin C c. Vitamins in the B series
What country leads the world in the production of swine? a. Brazil b. China c. India d. United States b. China
Which of the following intentionally retains some of the natural surface fibers of the animal from which it came? a. Hide b. Pelt c. Skin D. all of the above b. Pelt
"Tallow" is a word for: a. Animal Fat b. Animals forbidden to be eaten by religion c. animals too old to keep in production d. Inherited digestive diseases a. Animal Fat
what proportion of all US farm cash receipts comes from the sale of livestock? a. 10% livestock b. 25% livestock c. 50% livestock d. 75% livestock c. about 50% livestock
generally speaking, considering the total annual cost of maintaing a farm animal, what percent of that total annual cost is feed? a. 25% b. 50% c. 75% d. 100% b. 50%
As explained in class, a livestock "production cycle" refers to: a. cost of starting an operation b. operating loans between payments c. supply/demand of economics d. yearly calving interval c. supply/demand economics
Why does the small state of Iowa rank 3rd in the nation for total farm cash receipts?: a. it's beef cattle industry b. its dairy industry c. its horse industry d. its swine industry d. its swine industry
What state ranks first in the US in annual cash receipts for all livestock and for cattle and calves? a. California b. Montana c. Nebraska d. Texas d. Texas
Which of the following terms describes a bovine male castrated before maturity but then allowed to grow to full mature body size to be used for draft purposes? a. Bullock b. Ox c. Stag d. Steer b.Ox
What is the primary contribution of beef-type cattle in developed countries? a. draft power b. meat c. milk d. rough stock for riding in rodeos b.meat
What is the correct flow of cattle through the segments of the beef cattle industry commercial producer --> stocker -->feeder --> packer
which of the following can also be considered a cow-calf producer? a. feeder operation b. packer operation c. seed stock producer d. stocker operation c. seed stock producer
Hybrid vigor is more likely to occur in the: a. crossbred industry b. purebred industry a. crossbred industry
as presented in class, one average how much do beef calves weigh when weaned? a. 75-100lb b. 150-250lb c. 300-700lb d. realistic goal of 1000lb c. 300-700lb
As explained in class, the overall best way to minimize annual cow cost is to: a. cross breed Brahman bulls b. cull non-pregnant cows c. multi-task hired labor d. purchase only hay for feed b. cull non-pregnant cows
which of the following would produce the most total pounds of calves at weaning? a. 100 cows, 90% calf crop, 400lb average weaning weight b. 100 cows, 80% calf crop, 500lb weaning weight B. 100 cows, 80% calf crop, 500lb weaning weight
"Stockering" is very popular because during stockering cattle gain weight faster than they would in the feedlot True/False False
In which of the following are you most likely to find a large commercial cattle feeder operation? a. Florida b. Montana c. Nebraska d. Vermont c. Nebraska
In a feedlot, steers generally have a higher "ADG" than heifers True/False True
In a feedlot, each pen of cattle contains a mixture of breed types, frame sizes, gender etc. in an effort to balance all of the pens out the be "average" across every pen in the feedlot. True/False False
In livestock terminology, which of the following does not generally contribute to "shrink" a. feces b. hair c. urine d. water vapor b.hair
Based on the expected "dressing percentage" of beef cattle, how much would you expect the resulting carcass to weigh from the harvesting of a steer that weighed 1,000 pounds live weight? a. 500lb carcass b. 600lb carcass c. 700lb carcass d. 800lb carcass b. 600lb carcass
Why is Alabama such a good cow-calf and stockering state? a. lots of big commercial feedlots b. several slaughter facilities c. surplus of corn and soybeans d. year-round grazing d. year-round grazing
In sheep, which of the following is the proper spelling for a castrated male? a, weather b. wether c. wheather d. whether b. wether
As presented in class, which of the following was NOT a major reason for the decline in the sheep industry over the last 60 years? a. wool competition with synthetic fibers b. grazing competition with cattle c. high cost of intense seasonal labor d. loss of grazing privileges on public lands b. grazing competition with cattle
what is currently the most important market for sheep in this country? a. meat for human consumption b. specialty pet foods c. wool d. youth livestock programs a. meat for human consumption
which of the following is most likely to be considered a "range flock" state for sheep? a. california b. Iowa c. Texas d. wyoming d. Wyoming
over the past 20 years the weight of market lambs at the time of slaughter has: a. gotten lighter b. gotten heavier due to genetics of leaner growth to heavier weights b. gotten heavier
what is the proper name for a young bovine female heifer
name the genus and species of beef cattle selected for production in hot tropical climates bos indicus
name one of the things you would expect to have in a pre-conditioned calf dehorned
what term describes the desired amount of fat added to an animal in a feedlot for palatibility and flavor finish, marbling
What is the latin adjective for sheep? ovine
what is the proper term for a female sheep? ewe
What does the phrase "non-fed cattle" refer to? cattle that are not given grains. they are finished on grazing grass. their meat will have a yellowish color to the marble which is caused by carotene
As presented in class, where are rams introduced into the flock for breeding ewes? a. fall range b. spring range c. summer range d. winter headquarters d. winter headquarters
In which type of sheep operation would it be best for sheep to stay relatively close together? a. farm flock b. range flock b. range flock
the traditional weight for finished market lambs is: a. 80-100lbs b. 120-140lbs c. 160-180lbs d. 200-220lbs b. 120-140lbs
Dressing percentage for lambs is: a. 50% b. 60% c. 70% d. 80% a. 50%
Which of the following is not a name for the meat harvested from goats? a. Cabrito b. Chevon c. Goat meat d. all of the above d. all of the above
China ranks first in the world for both the number of swine and production of pork. True/False True
The state that leads the US in swine production is: a. California b. Iowa c. North Carolina d. Texas b. Iowa
the vast majority of market hogs produced in the US are purebred from a few select breeds True/False False
Traditional weight for feeder pigs is: a. 40lb b. 140lb c. 240lb d. 340lb a. 40lb
as mentioned in class, swine fed a typical corn-based diet could have a dietary deficiency in: a. energy for growth b. lysine, a specific amino acid c. selenium a specific mineral d. vitamin d b. lysine, a specific amino acid
What is the common name for enterotoxemia? over eating disease
What is the Latin adjective for goats? Caprine
What is the term for parturition in swine? farrowing
What is the term for a young female swine? Gilt
In which type of sheep operation are the sheep least likely to experience "foot rot"? a. Range flocks b. Farm flocks a. Range Flocks
What is a reasonable lamb crop for a well managed range flock? a. 50% b. 75% c. 125% d. 175% c. 125%
As explained in class, which of the following is most likely to kill the largest number of sheep in the shortest period of time? a. bears b. coyotes c. dogs d. mountain lions c. dogs
I range flocks, where are the ewes most likely to be located during the shearing season? a. fall range b. spring range c. summer range d. winter headquarters d. winter headquarters
How does feed efficiency of sheep in a feedlot compare to that of beef cattle in a feedlot? a. sheep are more efficient b. sheep are less efficient c. sheep and cattle are nearly equal in efficiency c. sheep and beef cattle are nearly equal in efficiency
In the goat industry, what does the term "chevon" refer to? a. breeding males b. hides c. goat meat d. goat milk c. goat meat
the most common method for permanently identifying individual swine in the US is: a. hot brand b. freeze brand c. tatoos d. tissue notches d. tissue notches
In the swine industry, "underline" refers to: a. economic bottom line b. growing slower than group average c. number of teats on belly d. waster disposal system under the floor line c. number of teats on belly
Which of the following is most likely to be the parents of a modern market hog in the US? a. Duroc dam x Duroc sire b. Duroc dam x Yorkshire sire c. Yorkshire dam x Duroc sire d. Yorkshire dam x Yorkshire sire c. Yorkshire dam x Duroc sire
"Shoat" is an older term for a: a. feeder pig b. runt of the litter c. superior breeding male d. young breeding male a. feeder pig
What does the word "flushing" mean? increasing the amount of energy in feed to increase the ovulation rate in an animal so they will be more prone to large litters or multiple births
what is the proper term form a young male horse? colt
Under which type of management system are lambs most likely to reach market weight by weaning? a. farm flock b. range flock a. farm flock
suppose you have a lamb on pasture, but you slip it a little grain each day to help it grow a little faster. How much weight might you expect it to gain each day (ADG)? a. 1/4 lb/day b. 1/2 lb/day c. 1 lb/day d/ 2 lb/day b. 1/2 lb per day
Approximatley how old are lambs when they normally reach market weight? a. 1-2months b. 3-4 months c. 6-8months d. 10-12 months b. 3-4 months
Which of the following is not ranked in the top 3 countries in the world for goat production a. china b. india c. pakistan d. spain d. spain
angora goats are raised primarily for: a. companionship b. meat c. milk d. mohair d. mohair
compared to sheep, goats are loners and prefer not to associate with humans True/False False
What is the biggest factor holding back improvement and growth of the Alabama goat industry? a. poor climate b. poor grazing c. poor health program d. poor marketing system for goats d. poor marketing system for goats
By definition, about how much should a "shoat" weigh? a. 5-7lb b. 40lb c. 90lb d. 240lb b. 40lb
why do most swine producers usually not breed their gilts at their first estrus of puberty? a. estrus at puberty is a "false heat" b. gilts are still to young and small c. managers usually don't detect first estrus d. will result in a small litter d. will result in a small litter
"transportation stress" is a common management tool in swine because it: a. builds up the immune system b. hastens puberty c. increase milk production d. induces parturition b. hastens puberty
What is the common treatment for "navel ill" a. antibiotic pills b. iron shots c. topical iodine d. vitamin E injections c. topical iodine
Weight of finished market hogs has increased steadily over the past few decades because: a. feed is cheaper, so they feed more b. genetically stay lean to heavier weights c. more demand for pork products d. processing equipment is bigger and better b. genetically stay lean to heavier weights
As presented in class, approximately how many pounds of feed does it take for a growing pig to gain one pound of body weight?: a. 1.0 -1.5lb b. 2.0-2.5lb c. 3.0-3.5lb d. 4.0-4.5lb c. 3.0-3.5lb
average dressing percentage for swine is: a. 40-42.% b. 50-52% c. 60-62% d. 70-72% d.70-72%
Most riding type breeds of horses (hot bloods) originated in England True/False False
Which of the following gaits is classified as "4 beat fast" a. canter b. gallop c. pace d. trot b. gallop
Horses had never been on the North American continent until Spanish explorers brought them here True/False False
Define "Cutting" horse working cattle
Define "Driving" horse pulling cart and wagons
Define "Eventing" horse and rider stamina over two or three days
Dedine "Halter" horse judged on appearance and breed character
Set to the leg a. Is a bad thing because it refers to stiffness of the legs and a rough ride b. is a good thing because it refers to angles of the leg that flex and cushion the ride b. is a good thing because it refers to the angles of the leg that flex and cushion the ride
As described in class, which of the following is the most likely to cause injury to the horse? a. "winging in" b. "winging out" a. "winging in"
Even though horses are monogastric (like humans), they can digest grass and hay because they have digestive organisms in their: a. cecum b. large intestine c. small intestine d. true stomach a. cecum
Twins are desirable in horses but double ovulations rarely happen True/False False
Pregnancy in the mare lasts approximatley: a. 9 months b. 10 months c. 11 months d. 12 months c. 11 months
Though it can gave various causes, once it occurs, "founder" is primarily considered a: a. Disease b. gastric problem c. lameness problem d. respiratory problem c. lameness problem
in general, when a horse first starts showing wear on its permanent teeth, it is likely to be: a. 2 years old b. 4 years old c. 6 years old d. 8 years old c. 6 years old
Milk is mostly: a. fat b. minerals c. protein d. water d. water
As described in class, when "grouping" cows, cows are grouped according to their: a. age b. body weight c. nutritional needs d. pedigree c. nutritional needs
Approximately what percent of the total cost of producing milk can be attributed to feed cost? a. 25% b. 50% c. 75% d. the two are unrelated b. 50%
what is the expected lambing rate for ewes maintained under a farm flock management system? 8 months, 3 lambings every 2 years
What is the proper term for a male goat? Buck
What is the proper term for a group of swine? Herd
What is the proper term for a mature female swine? Sow
What term or phrase describes a livestock industry in which one company owns every aspect from the live animals through processing and to the consumer vertical integration
What is the industry standard weaning weight in swine? 21 days
What is the latin adjective for horses? Equine
What is the proper name for a young female horse? filly
What term is used in the dairy industry to describe that gradual reduction in milk production over time as reflected in the lactation curve? persistency
Hot-blooded horses were developed primarily in: a. Asia b. British Isles c. Europe d. South America a. Asia
Which of the following is predominantly a women's equestrian event: a. harness racing b. flat racing c. driving d. barrel racing d. Barrel racing
As presented in class, which of the following is not in the top five state for number of horses? a. Texas b. Kentucky c. Florida d. California b. Kentucky
Which of the following focuses on the horse's conformation and breed characteristics? a. cutting b. dressage c. halter d. reining c. halter
Based on registration numbers, which is the most popular breed of horse in the US? a. American Quarter Horse b. Appaloosa c. Paint d. Thoroughbred a. American Quarter Horse
Which of the following is least likely to result in a horse hurting itself? a. cross-firing b. forging c. winging in d. winging out d. winging out
The horse gait, "canter" would be classified as a: a. 4-beat, slow b. 4-beat, fast c. 3-beat gait d. 2-beat gait c. 3-beat gait
Horse producers are more like sheep producers than cattle producers in that they hope to have a foal crop higher than 100% True/False Falsr
"Teasing" is a term associated with: a. Checking estrus on a mare b. enhancing sperm harvest from a stallion c. really making a horse mad at you d. both a and b are correct d. both a and b are correct
if a hors was advertised as "smooth mouthed" what's the youngest you would expect it to be? a. 6 months b. 2 years c. 4.5 years d. 10years d. 10 years
Among pleasure riding horse breeds, at approxiamately what age are the young normally weaned a. 1-2mo b. 4-6mo c. 8-10mo d. 1 year b. 4-6 months
Approximately 75% of all the horses in the world are in China True/False False
As explained in class, a "downer" animal is most likely suffering from: a. low blood sugar b. low blood salt c. low blood protein d. low blood calcium d. low blood calcium
What is the expected ADG for lambs fed only on concentrated feeds (like grain pellets). a. 2.2 -2.3 lb/d b. 1.6-1.7 lb/d 1.2-1.3 lb/d d. 0.6-0.7 lb/d d. 0.6-0.7 lb/day
If you processed a large 160 lb lamb, what would you expect the resulting carcass to weigh a. 60 lb b. 80 lb c. 100 lb d. 120 lb b. 80lb
as used in class the word "rut" is associated with: a. breeding male b. pen for giving birth c. type of feed bunk d. waster water from livestock operations a. breeding male
What country leads the world in swine production? a. Iowa b. Germany c. China d. Brazil c. China
since male pigs don't lactate, the number of teats on a male pig is totally irrelevant True/False False
Swine producers monitor gilts closely to determine the onset of puberty so they can breed them at first estrus to get them pregnant early to start making baby pigs soon True/False False
Which of the following is done about two weeks before a female pig is due to give birth and be moved into the farrowing barn? a. de-worm pregnant females b. disinfect farrowing barn c. treat pregnant females for external parasites d. wash underline of pregnant females a. de-worm pregnant females
Which of the following is true? a. baby pigs are hyperactive and need an area away from their mothers body heat to cool off b. baby pigs have little body fat and need a heat source warmer than the sow to be comfortable b. baby pigs have little body fat and need a heat source warmer than the sow to be comfortable
Why is the tail docked on most baby pigs? a. reduce likelihood of infections b. reduce unneeded body weight c. show ring regulations d. stylish in today's industry a. reduce likelihood of infection
What body system is primarily affected by "shipping fever" a. cardiovascular b. digestive c. renal d. respiratory d. respiratory
soybeans are primarily considered a good dietary source of: a. vitamins b. protein c. fiber d. energy b. protein
the "traditional" market hog was finished at 220lbs. As presented in class, which of the following is within the range of the current trend for average weight of finished market hogs? a. 180 pounds b. 220p pounds c. 260 pounds d. 300 pounds c. 260 pounds
What type of swine operation is most prevalent in Alabama? a. farrow-to-finish b. feeder pig finisher c. feeder pig producer d. seek stock producer b. feeder pig finisher
as presented in class, what is the common realistic number of pigs weaned from each litter that a sow gives birth to? a. 5+ b. 9+ c. 13+ d. none of the above b. 9+
fluid milk is not usually marketed internationally because: a. it churns into butter during shipping b. it's expensive to ship mostly water c. it's political and farmers get upset d. milk and milk products will spoil over time b. it's expensive to ship mostly water
About when did the invention of the milking machine and rural electrification really boost the dairy industry in the US? a. 1870's b. 1890's c. 1910's d. 1930's d. 1930's
in the dairy industry, the term persistency refers to: decline in milk produced over time
During a year in a dairy cow's life, the time when she is most likely to experience a "negative energy balance" occurs at the same time when the reproductivley she is: a. being bred for her next pregnancy b. dry c. experiencing postpartum anestrus d. pregnant a. being bred for her next pregnancy
as shown in class, a typical diet for a lactating dairy cow is composed mostly of: a. soybean meal b. ground corn c. grass hay d. corn silage d. corn silage
what is the proper terms for a mature, intact male swine? boar
what is the proper term for a young female goat? Doe
What do we call the type of swine breeding where and individual male is bred to one specific female? Hand breeding
what term describes the highest per day volume of milk produced from a dairy cow during lactation peak
what is common, general term for a "tummy ache" in horses colic
In the dairy industry, what does PMO stand for? Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
What is the standardized weaning age for lambs? 90 days
Cows on a dairy farm that are between calvings and NOT lactating are commonly referred to as: a. agalactic b. dry c. off d. past b. dry
An extremely fat dairy cow would be given a body condition score of: a. 1 b. 5 c. 10 d. 100 b. 5
which of the following has 4 milk producing glands but only two teats? a. sows b. mares c. ewes d. cows b. mares
which of the following is most likely to affect milk synthesis a. placental lactogen b. oxytocin a. placental lactogen
excluding poultry, which meat is consumed in the greatest quantity world wide a. pork b. lamb c. goat meat d. beef a. pork
what two states lead the US in number of market hogs harvested? a. california and texas b. kansas and nebraska c. north carolina and iowa d. texas and colorado c. north carolina and iowa
which of the following would be considered a high dollar value cut of a hog carcass? a. flank b. loin c. side d. shoulder b. loin
meat is composed mostly of: a. carbohydrates b. fats c. protein d. water d. water
allowing a carcass to hand in a chilled cooler for 2 weeks will make it: a. more colorful b. more flavorful c. more tender d. more safe to eatt c. more tender
for cattle slaughtered according to Jewish law to produce Kosher meat, the: a. head is removed quickly by decapitation to remove all the blood b. feet are left on the carcass to prove it was cloven-hooved a. head is removed quickly by decapitation to remove all the blood
"Offal" is considered and "edible" by product for humans True/False False
what is the name for a spherical-shaped cluster of milk producing cells inside a mammary gland? Alveolus
What is the term for meat harvested from young immature calves? Veal
Phenotype=Environment + ___________ Genotype
Which of the following the least important nutrient derived from including meat in the diet? a. calcium b. iron c. protein d. VItamin B a. Calcium
As presented in class, which of the following represents the smallest unit of contraction in a muscle? a. muscle bundle b. muscle fiber c. myofibril d. sarcomere d. sarcomere
Which of the following is a high dollar value cut of a beef carcass? a. brisket b. chuck c. loin d. side c. loin
Heart and tongue are considered inedible by-products for human consumption True/False False
What is the term for meat harvested from old, mature sheep? mutton
What common term is used by cattle farmers to describe an animal that's udder is filling with milk and enlarging just prior to giving birth. "springing"
What is subclinical mastitis an infection of the mammary gland and milk producing cells, not visible from the outside. it greatly affects the quality and quantity of milk produced and greatly reduces its shelf life
What hormone stimulates milk "let down" a. adrenal corticoids b. growth hormone c. oxytocin d. prolactin c. oxytocin
which of the following is characteristic of, or a consequence of, mastitis a. destruction of milk producing cells b. milk production declines c. shelf life is decreased d. all of the above d. all of the above
Which is of greater value on an average commercial dairy farm? a. bull calves b. heifer calves b. heifer calves
it was mentioned in class several times that Alabama has some VERY elite dairy cows that attract buyers from all over the world. What breed are they? a. brown swiss b. Guernsey c. holstein d. jersey d. jersey
What trait distinguishes a young lamb carcass from an older mutton carcass? a. length of legs b. meat color c. number of teeth d. skeletal integrity d. skeletal integrity
what South American country ranks high in the world production of beef cattle and hides? a. argentina b. brazil c. chile d. costa rica b. brazil
Approximately what percent of a 1000lb steer is actually edible? a. 46% b 57% c. 68% d. 79% a. 46%
A "kosher" meat might come from: a. the front half of a cow b. the front half of a pig c. back half of a cow d. back half of a pig a. front half of a cow
Define co-dominance offspring express phenotypes of both parents
define complete dominance offspring will be mist like one parent
Define lack of dominance offspring are average of the two parents
Define over dominance offspring are better than either parent
as explained in class, when trying to select for genetic improvement, variation is a good thing. True/False True
Which of the following is most likely to hasten genetic improvement in a phenotypic trait? a. lower generational interval b. lower heritability c. lower selection differential d. none of the above a. lower generation interval
once an animal inherits the genes for a phenotypic trait, it will always pass that phenotypic trait on to its offspring True/False False
the type of breeding system in which a common ancestor appears several times in a five-generation pedigree is: a. epistasis b. in-crossing c. linebreeding d. outcrossing c. linebreeding
what breeding system is most likely to be utilized by a swine producer operating a farrow-to-finish operation? a. 3 breed rotation b. 3 breed terminal cross c. 2 breed rotation d. all of the above b. 3 breed terminal cross
When chromosomes occur in pairs within a cell, the condition is referred to as? a. diploid b. haploid c. tetrploid d. triploid a. diploid
Define allele common area on homologues
define anti-codon triplet coding on tRNA
Define codon triplet coding area on ribsome
Define gene code for an entire protein
Using the coat color example presented in class, what must the genotype be of a red-colored animal? a. epistatic b. heterozygous c. homozygous dominant d. homozygous recessive d. homozygous recessive
when mating two heterozygous black animals what are the chances the offspring will be black? a. all will be black b. ratio of 3 black to 1 red c. ratio of 2 black to 2 red d. ratio of 1 black to 3 red b. ratio of 3 black to 1 red
What is the primary mechanism of growth for a baby in the first and second trimester of pregnancy? a. cell hyperplasia b. cell hypertrophy a. cell hyperplasia
if an animal is not eating and has already depleted its internal sources for energy from carbohydrates and fat, it will begin degrading muscle for needed energy. True/False True
what cell type is responsible for mobilization fo calcium from stored reserved in bone? a. chondroblasts b. fibroblasts c. osteoblasts d. osteoclasts d. osteoclasts
during which of the following stages of development would you expect to see considerable growth, but the rate of growth would be decreasing? a. early gestation b. late gestation c. birth to puberty d. puberty to fill maturity c. birth to puberty
beef animals raised for meat production are most desireable: a. backfat thickness b. bodyweight c. frame score d. maturity type d. maturity type
among market bee animals, which will usually be ready to harvest at the youngest age? a. females b. castrated males c. intact males d. all are ready to harvest at the same age a. females
among market swine, which will usually be ready to harvest at the youngest age? a. females b. castrated males c. intact males d. all are ready at the same age b. castrated males
so-called double muscling is an naturally occuring example of: a. cell hyperplasia b. cell hypertrophy b. cell hypertrophy
as presented in class, which of the following is not classified as roughage? a. cottonseed b. grass c. hay d. silage a. cottonseed
what percent of roughage is actually digested by an animal? a. 25-35% b. 50-65% c. 75-85% d. 100% digestible b. 50-65%
Which of the following components of feed contains the highest concentration of energy? a. carbohydrates b. lipids c. protein d. vitamins b. lipids
what percent of a steer is actually "edible" a. 25% b. 45% c. 65% d. 85% b. 45%
what component of meat is generally credited with adding the most aroma and flavor to meat? a. carbohydrates b. fat c. minerals d. vitamins b. fat
The animal by-product "ponch" is: a. endocrine organs b. fetal serum c. lung tissue d. stomach contents d. stomach contents
Dry cows usually come through the milking parlor along with the lactating cows, but the farmer just doesn't try to milk them while they are in the parlor True/False False
Body condition scoring is used primarily to monitor and manage: a. energy balance b. milking procedures c. overall health d. reproductive efficiency a. energy balance
milk "let-down" is caused by: a. estrogen b. oxytocin c. placental lactogen d. prolactin b. oxytocin
What general term describes feed components that are consumed to support life? essential nutrients
what do we call it when we select for increased frequency of expression for one phenotypic trait, and we subsequently discover that the frequency of expression of another phenotypic trait decreases negative correlation
what term describes the production of female gametes (eggs) oogenesis
what term describes the infection and inflammation of the mammary gland? mastitis
what do we call little individual homes for dairy calves that allow them to interact with each other but help prevent them from spreading diseases. calf-hutch
what term describes the removal of an animal's internal organs during its harvest? evisceration
which body tissue serves as a natural storage depot for amino acids? muscle
what is the name for the hormone synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue leptin
what is the name for the naturally-occurring gene for double muscling in sheep? callipyge
name one of the commercial ear implants shown in lecture for enhancing lean growth in market animals synovex
which of the following is considered a concentrate? a. corn b. silage c. grazing d. hay a. corn
if chemical analysis indicates a feed additive contains 4% nitrogen, it would be best classified as a a. carbohydrate b. lipid c. protein d. vitamin c. protein
What does CMT stand for a. calf manure treatment b. California mastitis test c. cow milk treatment d. creative management test b. california mastitis test
what is the length of a lactation curve in the dairy industry? a. 205 days b. 9 months c. 305 days d. 12 months c. 305 days
herbivores meet their dietary needs by consuming a. animals b. plants c. both animals and plants b. plants
Created by: asculpepper