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|Capital intensive agriculture
|Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods; a process requiring very little human labor
|Commercial agricultural economy
|All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption
|An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
|Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
|Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to succeed
|Planned agricultural economy
|An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution
|Subsistence agricultural economy
|Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption
|An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, including cattle, horses, sheep and goats
|A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
|An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese and butter
|The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves
|Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as “factory farms”
|Genetically modified foods
|Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes such as disease resistance, increased productivity or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability and efficiency.
|In agriculture, replacing human labor with technology or machines
|Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and can have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals (including humans)
|Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile
|Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export
|Loss of the top fertile layer of soil through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes or torrential seasonal rains.
|The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis
|The movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones.
|City Beautiful Movement
|Movement in environ. design that drew from the beaux arts school. Architects strove to get order on indust. centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared were absent from the new indust. world.
|Person who left the inner city and moved to outlying suburban and rural areas
|A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
|Inner City Decay
|Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty
|Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, pollution and poverty.
|Several metropolitan areas that were originally separate but have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.
|Efficient, geometrical structures made of concrete and glass dominated urban forms for half a century while this view prevailed.
|Geographical centers of activity. Large cities (like Los Angeles) may have many nodes.
|A reaction to the feeling of alienation that people get from modern archit. Uses older styles and a sense of lightheartedness. Buildings have pleasant-looking forms and colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people friendly
|The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homogenous suburban neighborhoods. This isolates those individuals who cant afford to move to suburban neighborhoods and must remain in the central city.
|Residential communities located outside of city centers that are usually relatively homogenous in terms of population.
|Urban growth boundary
|Geographical boundaries placed around a city to limit suburban growth within that city.
|Centers of economic, culture and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
|Cities established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
|Cities in Europe developed during Medieval times and that have the same characteristics such as high density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, a church in the center, and walls around the city center that provided defense.
|Cities that arose during the Middle Ages and represent times of relative stagnation of urban growth. This system fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants who worked their land, with few alternative economic opportunities
|Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic centers (i.e. NYC, LA, St. Louis)
|Cities that owe their structure to their religious beliefs. Islamic cities contain mosques at the center and walls guarding their perimeter. Open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by high walls, and dead-end streets, also characterize Islamic cities.
|Latin American city
|Cities that owe much of their structure to colonialism, the fast rise of industrialization and population. They also have sectors of industrial or residential development radiating out from the CBD, where most industrial and financial activity occurs
|A country’s leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country.