Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

BIO 435

Autonomic Nervous System

What does the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) do? prepares body for heightened activity; fight or flight
What does the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) do? facilitates normal body maintenance; rest and reset
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system come from? thoracic and lumbar spinal cord
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system come from? brainstem and the sacral spinal cord
Where does the input for both the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS come from? Input for both comes from the brain
What part of the brain can regulate activation of the ANS? hypothalamus; the hypothalamus activates appropriate preganglionic neurons
Which NTs are in the preganglionic neurons for both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons? Acetylcholine (ACh) nicotinic receptors and some metabotropic
Which NTs are in the postganglionic neurons in the PARASYMPATHETIC NS? ACh
Which NTs are in the postganglionic neurons in the SYMPATHETIC NS? Norepinephrine (NE); metabotropic
How many types of adrenergic (NE) receptors are there? 3
Describe the a1 adrenergic receptor causes smooth muscle contraction; result in depolarization
Describe the a2 adrenergic receptor can result in either the inhibition of transmitter release or smooth muscle contraction; results in depolarization
Describe the B adrenergic receptors causes dilation of skeletal muscles, heart muscle contraction, and smooth muscle relaxation
How does the SNS affect the adrenal medulla? The SNS causes the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine into the bloodstream and locally onto neurons
What type of reflexes are used to maintain homeostasis? Autonomic/visceral reflexes
Describe the enteric nervous system -neurons associated with the gastrointestinal tract -controls the secretion of digestive enzymes, fluids, etc.-there is cross talk between the CNS and the enteric NS
What occurs during a stress response? There is enhanced function of systems that are necessary for survival/critical systems (circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscle, brain) and reduced function of non-critical systems (reproductive, digestive, urinary, and immune)
What are the 2 primary components of the stress response? 1. Sympathetic NS activation 2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation
Describe SNS activation - Norepinephrine (NE) is released on the smooth muscle glands- Epinephrine is released into bloodstream
Describe HPA axis activation -Cortisol is released into the bloodstream -Take about ONE hour after stressor initiated
Describe the systems that send input to the hypothalamus (PVN) so it can initiate a stress response 1. somatosensory system = visceral stressors (pain, pressure, temperature) 2. immune system 3. limbic system = emotional stressors 4. brain stem= homeostatic stressors
What does the activation of PVN cells lead to? CRH transcription and release
Where is CRH released to after PVN cells are activated? Into the hypophyseal portal system from where it then travels to the anterior pituitary
What NT does CRH cause the anterior pituitary to release? Acetylcholine (ACh)
After ACh and ACTH is released and stimulates the adrenal cortex, what is released into the blood stream? cortisol
Describe the effects of cortisol - increases alertness- promotes the release of blood glucose release -inhibits the immune system- affects memory
How is cortisol different from epinephrine and norepinephrine? Cortisol lasts longer in the system that epinephrine and NE (these two have shorter half lifes and are broken down faster).
What kind of feedback does the glucocorticoid, cortisol, produce? Negative feedback; the release of cortisol results in the decrease in the release of CRH and ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
What happens to CRH levels when the body experiences extreme stressors? CRH is continuously released despite the negative feedback
Why does cortisol have a greater influence on memory? Cortisol has a higher affinity for mineralocorticoid receptors (cortisol [a glucocorticoid, GR]) transforms into cortisone which then transforms into aldosterone [a mineralocorticoid, MR]) There is greater memory performance when MRs are saturated and there is lower memory performance when GRs are activated.
Why do MRs improve memory compared to GRs? MRs enhance LTP magnitude while GRs reduce LTP.
What effect does chronic stress have on the hippocampus? -Upregulates NMDA receptors -causes increase in Ca2+ which can lead to excitotoxicity and apoptosis -chronic cortisol put the cells at an energy crisis
Why does chronic cortisol from chronic stress put the cell at an energy crisis? The extra Ca2+ requires more ATP to pump it out and makes the cell more vulnerable to other processes that could reduce ATP levels (stroke and trauma)
Created by: keiannaowens
Popular Neuroscience sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards