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Blood Tests 4

Common Chemistry Tests

QuestionAnswer
Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) LIVER -->marked elevations point to liver disease; used for monitoring liver treatment
Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) LIVER-->increased values in hepatic carcinoma; elevation of AFP in prenatal screening indicates neural tube disorder
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) LIVER or BONE-->elevated ALP levels because of biliary obstruction and bone disease
Ammonia LIVER-->increased blood levels indicate cirrhosis and hepatitis
Amylase PANCREAS & LIVER-->increased levels of this enzyme diagnostic of acute pancreatitis; decreased values associated with liver disease' cholecystitis, and advanced cystic fibrosis
Aspartate Amino-Transferase (AST) LIVER or HEART-->increase in enzyme indicative of liver dysfunction; significant increase following myocardial infarction
Bilirubin LIVER-->increased levels in the bloodstream point to red cell destruction and liver dysfunction
Blood Gases (ABG) KIDNEYS, LUNGS-->measures pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) to evaluate the acid-base balance
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) KIDNEY-->elevated values because of impaired renal function from toxins, inflammation, or obstruction
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) NONSPECIFIC-->increased in the cases of malignancy, effective in the early detection of colorectal cancer
Calcium BONE-->increased levels associated with diseases of the bone; used in monitoring effects of renal failure
Cholesterol (total) HEART-->indicative of high risk for cardiovascular disease
Cortisol ADRENALS-->elevated levels signify adrenal hyperfunction (Cushings syndrome); decreased levels indicate adrenal hypofunction (Addison's disease)
Creatine Kinase (CK) HEART or MUSCLE-->elevated values point to muscle damage (i.e., myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, or strenuous exercise)
Creatinine KIDNEY--> increased levels indicate renal impairment; decreased levels associated with muscular dystrophy
Drug Analysis values monitored to maintain therapeutic range and avoid toxic levels for drugs such as barbiturates, digoxin, gentamicin, lithium, primidone, phenytoin, salicylates, theophylline, or tobramycin
Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, CO2) KIDNEY, ADRENALS, HEART-->sodium values, increased in disorders of the kidney and adrenals; decreased values of potassium seen in irregular heartbeat; chloride values are increased in kidney and adrenal disorders and decreased in diarrhea
Glucose PANCREAS-->elevated levels signify diabetic problems; decreased values support liver disease and malnutrition
Glycosylated Hemoglobin PANCREAS-->glycohemoglobin level shows what type of diabetic control has occurred over the past several months
Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) LIVER--> elevated values assist in the diagnosis of liver problems, specific for hepatobiliary problems
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) HEART, LUNGS, LIVER--> elevated levels confirm acute myocardial infarction; chronic lung, kidney, and liver dysfunction
Lipase PANCREAS--> increased levels in acute pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, and obstruction
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) PROSTATE-->performed to screen patients for the presence of prostate cancer, monitor progression of disease and the response of the patient to treatment
Total Protein LIVER or KIDNEY-->low levels point to liver and kidney disorders; elevated levels may occur with multiple myeloma and dehydration
Triglycerides HEART-->increased values indicate lipid metabolism disorders and serve as an index for evaluating atherosclerosis possibilities
Uric Acid KIDNEY--> elevated levels found in renal disorders and gout
Vitamin B12 & Folate LIVER-->decreased levels indicate anemias and disease of the small intestine
Created by: kmaresco