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# Physiology 2

Physiology Exam

1st step in the nerve impulse transmission across a synapse. stimulus reaches threshold in the axon of a presynaptic neuron, and synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic neuron's cell membrane.
2nd step in the nerve impulse transmission across a synapse. Neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron are released into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis.
3rd step in the nerve impulse transmission across a synapse. Neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft become attached to the receptors on the cell membrane of the post synaptic target cell
4th step in the nerve impulse transmission across a synapse. Attachment of neurotransmitters to membrane receptors results in opening of sodium channels on postsynaptic target cell membranes.
5th step in the nerve impulse transmission across a synapse. Charged socium ions move into the postsynaptic neuron along concentration and electrical gradients, causing changes to its membrane potential.
Is a patellar reflex a somatic reflex or autonomic reflex somatic
Is a pupil light reflex somatic reflex or autonomic reflex autonomic reflexes
Are the effector target cells in skeletal muscles somatic reflexes or autonomic reflex somatic reflex
Are effector target cells in smooth and cardiac muscle somatic reflexes or autonomic reflex autonomic reflex
pain receptor Norciceptor
temperature receptor Thermoreceptor
receptor that senses chemical composition in the blood Chemoreceptor
sensory receptor that receives stimuli from inside the body interoreceptor
Motor outflow for CNS sympathetic nerves is through the thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
Restin membrane potential of nerve cell in millivolts -70 millivolts
In the nervous system, ACT and Epinephrine/Norepinephrine function as neurotransmitters
2 regulatory function of the hypothalamus regulatory center of Autonomic nervous system, body temp, bld pressure, heart rate, water balance, endocrine activity, emotional states, biological drives,
T/F A strong action potential is generated by strong stimuli and a weak action potential is generated by weak stimuli false
What function does the muscle spindles which are sensory receptor perform proprioception stretch reflex alert the brain to amount and speed of stretch
Functions of the autonomic nervous system body temperature digestion blood pressure
T/F massage may decrease pain in a positive feedback loop that decreases the pain-spasm cycle. False
How might knowledge of dermatomes be useful to a massage therapist? Dermatomal symptoms may reveal underlying spinal nerve root irritability and innervated muscles which may be affected
Which cranial nerve may be affected following an ischemic stroke the client appears to have asymmetrical smile with 1/2 the face showing markedly decreased movement. Facial
Which cranial nerve may be affected when a person complains of a stiff neck and shoulder area with a spasm that rotates the head on the spine after experiencing a near fall Accessory
Which cranial nerve may be affected when a person has cranial injury and now struggles with one eye that wanders off track Oculomotor or Abducens
Which cranial nerve may be affected after returning from getting a crown on a rear molar, the person experiences extreme pain on their face near the cheek, over the eye and along the jaw of one side trigeminal
The function of the limbic system emotional response and memory
The function of the vestibular cortex balance and head orientation
The function of the cerebrum conscious awareness of self
The function of the Broca's area language (speech formation) and comprehension
The function of insulin on cell metabolism increase glucose uptake by active transport through cell membrane
What are the 3 phases of the stress response alarm phase, resistance phase, exhaustion phase
Alarm phase short lived, sympathetic nervous system, fight or flight, increased bp, heart rate, blood sugar, muscle tension. norepinephrine, epinephrine, adrenaline
Resistance phase homeostatic long acting hormones of adrenal cortex by hypothalamic activation. Increase bl sugars, suppress immune system, delayed tissue repair, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, teeth grinding, fatigue. Aldosterone, corticosteroids, cortisol
Exhaustion phase prolonged stress results in adrenal fatigue. Systemic extremes; rage depression, insomnia, chronic immune and digestive conditions, reproductive failure, chronic hbp, heart disease.
T/F The 1st phase of the stress response is regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. False
Are glucocorticoids and insulin antagonistic or synergistic? Why? Antagonistic: glucocorticoids increase blood sugar Insulin decreases blood sugar
Are growth hormone and thyroid hormones antagonistic or synergistic? Why Synergistic Both hormones have similar actions to promote cellular proliferation, maturation, tissue growth and development
Benefits and effects of massage for persons experiencing a stress response Reduce blood pressure, reduce blood sugar, reduce sympathetic nervous system, relax muscle tension. Increase parasympathetic nervous system, promote tissue repair, digestion, and elimination
What is the function of Testosterone, Estrogen, and Progesterone reproduction, sex cells mature, sexual characteristics develop, changes in hair growth, develop secondary sexual characteristics: breast development, vocal chord changes, glandular changes, ovulation and menstration
Which 2 hormones of the anterior pituitary target the ovaries and testes FSH follicle stimulation hormone LH luteinizing hormone
Hormones that influence blood volume and blood pressure Antidiuretic hormone Aldosterone
Age related change of the nervous system nervous system activity decreases, neurons degrade
Massage related benefits for the nervous system stimulates nervous system, stretches tissues and promotes nutrient exchange
Age related change of the endocrine system endocrine activity decreases, some become erratic or stop completely
Massage benefit for the endocrine system reduces stress response, homeostatic benefits
Age related change of the reproductive system decrease in functioning in both genders. Menopause, dryness, erectile dysfunction, libido changes
Massage benefit for the reproductive system reduce stress response which may assist function. Pituitary stimulation. Stimulation of conception lines, nausea, childbirth
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic Activation of this division increases sexual arousal parasympathetic
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic Activation of this division increases production of tears and saliva parasympathetic
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic Activation of this division increases blood supply to the extremities sympathetic
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic Activation of this division increases blood pressure and heart rate sympathetic
Functions of the nervous system Sensory input Integrate, process and interpret sensory input Respond through motor output, glandular output
How are the nervous and endocrine system similiar both send chemical messengers effect tissues and glands
How are the nervous and endocrine system different nervous system: fast action short term effects endocrine: slow acting and longer effects
How are the endocrine and reproductive systems similiar both make steroidal hormones when has an effect outside of their immediate vicinity
How are endocrine and reproductive systems different Reproductive system is inactive until puberty Endocrine system is active throughout our lives
How are the nervous and reproductive systems interconnected through the sympathetic and parasympathetic both mediate arousal and ejaculation or orgasm
Created by: Zenfenn
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