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Unit 6: Agriculture

Ch.7 Barron's / Ch.10 Rubenstein

QuestionAnswer
The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products Agribusiness
The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the prupose of human consumption. Agriculture
An agricultural activity associated with raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. Animal Husbandry
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes Biotechnology
Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods - a process requiring very little human labor Capital-Intensive Agriculture
A grass yielding grain for food. Cereal Grain
Husks of grain seperated from the seed by threshing. Chaff
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field. Combine
All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption. Commercial Agricultural Economy
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season. Crop
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil Crop Rotation
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter Dairying
The process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like Desertification
The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves Domestification
Harvesting twice a year on the same field. Double Cropping
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area. Extensive Agriculture
Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms. Feedlots
Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a lab for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value, allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiencey. Genetically Modified Foods
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe. Green Revolution
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers Horticulture
The outer covering of a seed Hull
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance Hunting and Gathering
The rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world Industrial Revolution
Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yields Intensive Cultivation
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful Labor-Intensive Agriculture
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West Livestock Ranching
The replacement of human labor with technology or machines Mechanization
An agricultural system practiced in the Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avacados, olives, and nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations Mediterranean Agriculture
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied Milkshed
Wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to descripe a sawah. Paddy
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing Pasture
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter Pastoralism
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals Pesticides
An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both the agricultural production and distribution Planned Agricultural Economy
A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of land devoted to the production of a single export crop Plantation
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs, and promote greater soil conservation Ridge Tillage
Process that occurs when soil in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residue that render the soil infertile Salinization
The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move unto new sites. Shifting
System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the grounds and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time. Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples which are usually produced in developing countries for export Specialty Crops
Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusinve family or local consumption Subsistence Agricultural Economy
A flooded field for growing rice Sawah
Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method Swidden
Loss of the top fertile layer of soil through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains Topsoil Loss
The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer Transhumance
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the forms of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land Urban Sprawl
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activities in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be closer to CBD and vice versa. Von Thunen's Model
Area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the SE Mediterranean coast (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity. Ferile Crescent
Seed of a cereal grass Grain
A form of subsistence agriĀ¬culture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
The most productive farmland Prime Agricultural Land
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area. Ranching
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field. Reaper
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, Seed Agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inĀ¬puts of fertilizer and pesticides. Sustainable Agriculture
To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it. Thresh
Commercial gardening and fruit farming. Truck Farming
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants. Vegetation Planting
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth. Wet Rice
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind Winnow
Created by: elefan12