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ECG Conduction

CT ECG Conduction System Quiz

What are the neuromuscular aspects of the conduction system? 1 - Action potential; 2 - Resting potential; 3 - Cardiac cell membrane; 4 - Automaticity / Excitability; 5 - Depolarization / Repolarization
What does action potential mean? First step in the chain of events leading to contraction. ( +30 - +40 mv)
What does resting potential mean? Period between contractions. Inside of the cell is negative relative to the outside
What does cardiac cell membrane mean? Cell membrane must allow sodium in for contraction.
What does automaticity mean? Ability of the pacemaker cells to generate their own electrical impulses spontaneously (Characteristic is specific to the pacemaker cells.)
What does excitability mean? Ability of the cardiac cells to respond to an impulse. (Characteristic is shared by all cardiac cells)
What does conductivity mean? Ability of the cardiac cells to receive an electrical impulse & transmit it to other cardiac cells. (Characteristic is shared by all cardiac cells)
What does contractility mean? Ability of the myocardial cells to shorten and cause muscle contraction. (Characteristic is specific to myocardial cells)
Which cardiac cell characteristic is considered a mechanical function of the heart? Contractility
What are automaticity, excitability and conductivity characteristics considered? Electrical functions of the heart
What is another name for phase zero (0)? Depolarization
What is another name for phase 1? Start of Repolarization
What is another name for phase 2? Plateu (Repolarization continues)
What happened at the end of phase 3 and the start of phase 4? Sodium pump activated
What is happening during phases 1 - 3? Potassium is leaving the cell
What does TMP stand for? Threshold membrane potential
What is the normal range for TMP (Threshold Membrane potential)? -60 to -70 mv
What is the total number of phases for a cardiac action potential? 5
Where is the sinoatrial node located? In the wall of the upper right atrium near the inlet of the superior vena cava.
What is the normal range of impulse discharges in the SA node? 60 - 100 beats per min
Describe a cardiac cell - They are long and narrow and many are brached
Define cation - An ion with a positive charge
Define anion - An ion with a negative charge
What kind of ion is potassium (K+)? Primary intracellular ion with a negative charge
What kind of ion is sodium (N+)? Primary extracellular ion with a positive charge
What is another name for periods of stimulation? Depolarization
What is another name for periods of rest? Repolarization
Define P-wave - Depicts atrial depolarization or the spread of the impulse from the SA node throughtout the atria
PR-interval - Represents the time from the onset of atrial depolarization to the onset of ventricular depolarization
Define PR-segment - The short isoelectric line between the end of the P-wave to the beginning of the QRS complex
What is the PR-Segment used for? As a baseline to evaluate elevation or depression of the ST segment
QRS complex - Depicts ventricular depolarization or the spread of the impulse throughtout the ventricles
ST-Segment - Represents the end of ventricular depolarization & the beginning of ventricular repolarization
T-wave - Represents the latter phase of ventricular repolarization
QT-interval - Represents both ventricular depolarization & repolarization
What are the three types of muscle tissues? 1 - Skeletal; 2 - Visceral; 3 - Cardiac
Describe skeletal muscle tissues - Striated; Responses to commands
Describe visceral muscle tissues - Smooth; Involuntary
Describe cardiac muscle tissue - Striated; Involuntary (can generate its own electrical output)
What is the normal range for RMP (resting membrane potential)? -80 to -90 mv
What makes up the His-Purkinje System? Bundle of His, Right and Left bundle branches & Purkinje Fibers
What does PEA stand for? Pulseless Electrical Activity
What does a cardiac cycle consist of? One heart beat or one P,QRS & T sequence
How is the delay of the AV node represented on the ECG tracing? The flat line of the PR interval
What are the threee main functions of the AV node? Slow conduction of the electrical impulse; Serve as a backup pacemaker to the SA node; Block some impulses when the rate is high
What does ANS stand for? Autonomic Nervous System
What are the two majior divisions of the automatic nervous system? 1 - Sympathetic nervous system; 2 - Parasympathetic Nervous System
Which division of the ANS is the brake? Parasympathetic
What kind of receptor is the parasympathetic Nervous system? Cholinergic
What does Acetylcholine do to the ANS? Decrease in the Heart rate, conduction, contractility (SA/AV)
Which division of the ANS speeds things up? Sympathetic
What kind of receptor is the Sympathetic nervous system? Adranergic
What does norepihephrine do to the ANS? Increases Heart Rate, conduction, & contractility
Heart Rate = Chronotropic (from chrono-, meaning time; Affecting the rate of rhythmic movements)
Conduction = Dromotropic
Contractility = Inotropic
Created by: ct program