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APHG Agriculture

APHG Unit 6 Agriculture Barrons & Rubenstein

Agribusiness The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.
Agriculture The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption.
Animal husbandry An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
Biotechnology A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Capital-intensive agriculture Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods-a process requiring very little human labor.
Commercial agricultural economy All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption.
Dairying An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most com¬monly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Domestication The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves.
Extensive agriculture An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
Feedlots Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms.
Fertile Crescent Area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the south¬eastern Mediterranean coast (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domesti- . cation and thus agricultural activity.
Genetically modified foods Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as dis¬ease resistance, increased productivity or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency.
Green Revolution The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
Hunting and gathering The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Industrial Revolution The rapid economic changes that occurred in agricul¬ture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world.
Intensive cultivation Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield.
Labor intensive agriculture Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
Livestock ranching An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
Mechanization In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technol¬ogy or machines.
Mediterranean agriculture An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados...
Pastoralism A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal hus¬bandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Pesticides Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
Planned agricultural economy An agricultural economy found in commu¬nist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution.
Plantation A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.
Salinization Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
Shifting cultivation The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
Slash-and-burn agriculture System of cultivation that usually exists in trop¬ical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a rela¬tively short period of time.
Specialty crops Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export.
Subsistence agricultural economy Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption.
Swidden Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.
Topsoil loss Loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential sea¬sonal rains.
Transhumance The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
Urban sprawl The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
von Thunen model An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent.
Agribussiness Commercial agriculture characterized by inte¬gration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usu¬ally through ownership by large corporations.
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Cereal grain A grass yielding grain for food.
Chaff Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing. Chain migration 1\•Iigration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Combine A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans gram while moving over a field.
Commercial agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Crop Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Crop rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Double cropping Harvesting twice a year on the same field
Grain Seed of a cereal grass
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of agricultural tech¬nology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Hull The outer covering of a seed.
Intensive Subsistence agriculture A form of subsistence agri¬culture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Milkshed The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Paddy wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
Pastoral Nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pasture Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing ani-mals, as well as land used for grazing.
Plantation A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Prime agricultural land The most productive farmland. Prime meridian The meridian, designated as 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Reaper A machine that cuts grain standing in the field.
Ridge tillage System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
Swah A flooded field for growing rice
Seed agriculture Reproduction of plants through annual in-troduction of seeds
Slash and burn agriculture Another name for shifring cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the veg¬etation and burning the debris.
Spring wheat Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Subsistence Agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Sustainable agriculture Farming methods that preselTe long¬term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in¬puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Swiddem A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Thresh To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it. Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
Vegetation planting Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
Wet rice Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Winnow To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Winter Wheat Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the summer.
Created by: Chenchen
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