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APHG Government

APHG Unit 4 Government Barrons & Rubenstein

WordsDefinitions
Antecedent boundaries A boundary line established before an area is populated
Centrifugal forces forces that tend to divide a country.
Centripetal forces Forces that bond a country together.
Commonwealth of independent states Confederacy of independent states of independent states of the former soviet Union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs.
Compact state A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
Confederation A form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose.
Domino Theory The idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, setting off a chain reaction of collapse.
East/West Divide Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communists and socialists countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
Electoral College a certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state’s population.. Each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency’s choice.
Electoral Vote The decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominant views on that elector’s state.
Elongated State A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
European Union International organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members.
Exclave A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.
Federalism a system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government.
Fragmented State A state that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts.
Frontier An area where borders are shifting and weak and where peoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay claim to the land.
Geometric Boundary Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
Geopolitics The study of interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur.
Gerrymandering The designation of voting districts so as to favor a political party or candidate.
Heartland theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Imperialism The perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign.
International Organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either’s autonomy or self determination.
Landlocked state A state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which is bad for accessibility and trade.
Law of the sea Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth’s seas and oceans and their resources.
Lebensraum Hitler’s expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire living space for German people.
Microstate A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
Nation Tightly knit group of people sharing the same language ethnicity religion and other cultural attributes.
Nationalism A sense of national pride to such extent as to exalt one nation above all others.
Nation-state A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity.
NAFTA north American free trade agreement- Agreement signed on JAN. 1 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States Mexico and Canada.
NATO North Atlantic treaty organization- An international organization that has joined together for military purposes.
North/South divide The economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe and North America, Australia and Japan and generally poorer countries of Asia Africa and Latin America.
Organic Theory The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.
OPEC Organization of petroleum exporting countries- An internal economic organization whose member countries produce and export oil.
Perforated state A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
Physical boundary Political Boundaries that correspond with physical features such as mountains or rivers.
Political geography The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
Popular vote The tally of each individuals vote within a specific geographic area.
Prorupted state A state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension, leading away from the main territory.
Reapportionment The relocation of electoral seats to defined territories.
Rectangular State A state whose territory is rectangular in shape.
Redistricting The drawing of a new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes.
Rimland theory Nicholas Spykman’s theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
Self-determination The right of a nation to govern itself autonomously.
State A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community.
States’ rights Subsequent boundaries
Superimposed boundaries Boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern.
Supranational organization organization of 3 or more states to promote shared activities.
Territorial dispute Any dispute over land ownership
Territorial organization Political organization that distributes political power in more easily governed units of land.
Theocracy A state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of religious leaders.
United Nations A global supranational organization established at the end of WWII to foster international security and cooperation.
Balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Boundary Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory.
Colonialism Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Compact state A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Elongated state A state with a long, narrow shape.
Federal state An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Fragmented state A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Frontier zone separating two states in which neither state
zone separating two states in which neither state Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Imperialism Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
Landlocked state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Microstate A state that encompasses a very small land area. Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Perforated state A state that completely surrounds another one.
Prorupted state An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government \\ith control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Unitary state An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Created by: Chenchen