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APHG Social Instit.

APHG Unit 3 Social Institution Barrons & Rubenstein

Acculturation The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
Animism Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
Artifact Any item that represents a material aspect of culture ..
Buddhism System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people-such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization.
Caste system System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma.
Christianity The world's most widespread religion. Christianity is a monothe¬istic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide. The three major categories of Christianity are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.
Creole A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
Cultural complex The group of traits that define a particular culture.
Cultural extinction Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, accul-turation, or a combination of the three.
Cultural geography The subfield of human geography that looks at how cul-tures vary over space.
Cultural hearth Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.
Cultural imperialism The dominance of one culture over another.
Cultural trait The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a par¬ticular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.
Culture A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and gov¬ernment.
Custom Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group.
Denomination A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems.
Dialect Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary some¬what from the parent form.
Diaspora People who corne from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity.
Ecumene The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans.
Environmental determinism A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
Ethnic cleansing The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide.
Ethnic neighborhood An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background.
Ethnic religion Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts.
Ethnicity Refers to a group of people who share a common identity.
Evangelical religions Religion in which an effort is made to spread a partic¬ular belief system.
Folk culture Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional soci¬eties in which they developed.
Fundamentalism The strict adherence to a particular doctrine.
Genocide A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group.
Ghetto A segregated ethnic area within a city.
Global religion Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe.
Hinduism A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that inte¬grates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system.
Indo-European family Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people.
Islam A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Judaism The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of eth¬nic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.
Language extinction This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. Thousands of languages have become extinct over the eons since language first developed, but the process of language extinction has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years.
Language family A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics.
Language group A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics.
Lingua franca An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication.
Literacy The ability to read and write.
Local religion Religions that are spiritually bound to particular regions.
Minority A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the major¬ity race or ethnicity in a particular area or region.
Missionary A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented.
Monotheism The worship of only one god.
Multicultural Having to do with many cultures.
Official language Language in which all government business occurs in a country.
Pidgin Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.
Pilgrimage A journey to a place of religious importance.
Polytheism The worship of more than one god.
Pop culture (or popular culture) (Driven by economy) Dynamic culture based in large, heteroge¬neous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change
Race A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
Romance languages Any of the languages derived from Latin including Ital¬ian, Spanish, French, and Romanian.
Shaman The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture.
The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture. Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.
Syncretic Traditions that borrow from both the past and present.
Toponym Place names given to certain features on the land such as settle¬ments, terrain features, and streams.
Traditio A cohesive collection of customs within a cultural group.
Universalizing religion Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe.
Custom The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Folk culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Habit A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
Popular culture Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Taboo A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
British Received Pronunciation (BRP) The dialect of English associated With upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Creole or creolized language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Dialect A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Ebonics Dialect spoken by some African-Americans. Economic
Extinct language A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
Franglais A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
Isogloss A boundary that separates regions in which different
Isolated language A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Language A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Language branch A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
Language family A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Lingua franca A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Literary tradition A language that is written as well as spoken.
Official language The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Pidgin language A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Spanglish Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
Standard language The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Vulgar Latin A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Animism Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Autonomous religion A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Caste The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Cosmogony A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Denomination A division of a branch that ur1ites a number of local
Diocese The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church.
Ethnic religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Ghetto During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Hierarchical religion A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Missionary An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Pagan follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times. Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Pilgrimage A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Polytheism Belief in or worship of more than one god. Popular culture Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Solstice Time when the Sun is farthest from the equator.
Universalizing religion A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Blockbusting A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Centripetal force An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Ethnic cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Mlulti-ethnic state State that contains more than one ethnicity.
Multinational state State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality. Nationality Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Race Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Racism Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Self-determination Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Sharecropper A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Triangular slave trade A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Created by: Chenchen
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