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Health Ch 8

Reproduction and Heredity

Endocrine glands One of a group of ductless glands that release hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Estrogen A hormone produced by the ovaries that regulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics and controls sex drive.
Hormones A substance that acts as a chemical messenger in the body.
Ovaries The two female reproductive glands, located one on each side of the body, a few inches below the waist.
Pituitary gland A small endocrine gland, located at the base of the brain, that controls activities, such as growth rate, metabolism, and reproduction.
Progesterone A hormone produced by the ovaries that controls the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle and helps to maintian the uterus during pregnancy.
Testes The two male reproductive glands, located in the scrotum.
Epididymis A J-shaped tube located on the back of each testis, in which sperm are stored for two to four days after they are formed.
Inguinal hernia A condition that occurs when part of the intestine pushes into the scrotum.
Penis The male organ through which sperm and urine leave the body.
Puberty The period of sexual development during which males and females becoome sexually mature and able to produce children.
Scrotum The external sac of the skin in which the testes are located.
Semen A liquid that contains sperm as well as fluids provided by the seminal vesicles, Cowper's glands, and prostate gland.
Vas deferens One of two tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
Cervix The narrow base, or outer end, of the uterus.
Endometrium The lining of the uterus.
Fallopian tubes One of two narrow tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus.
Menstruation The discharge of blood and tissue from the uterus.
Ovulation The release of one or more eggs from an ovary.
Toxic shock syndrome A bacterial infection characterized by sudden high fever, rash, vomitting, diarrhea, and dizziness, occurring chiefly, among women who use tampons.
Uterus A hollow, muscular organ located between the ovaries and behind the urinary bladder, in which a fertilized egg grows and develops.
Vagina The passage leading from the cervix to the outside of the body; also known as the birth canal.
Chromosomes Tiny structures in cells that contain hereditary information.
Cystic fibrosis A recessive genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas secrete abnormally thick mucus; it occurs mainly among whites.
Downs syndrome A genetic disorder resulting from an extra chromosome; people with Down syndrome are mentally retarded, may have heart defects, and have a distinctive physical appearance.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy A sex-linked disorder in which the person lacks a protein needed for muscle function; as a result, muscle tissue breaks down and a person loses muscle control.
Gene A section of a chromosome that determines a single trait; the basic unit of heredity.
Hemophilia A sex-linked disorder in which the person's blood does not clot properly.
Phenylketonuria A recessive genetic disorder in which the body cannot break down phenylalanine; it can cause mental retardation.
sex-linked disorders A genetic disorder caused by a gene that is found on a sex chromosome, usually the X chromosome.
sickle-cell disease A recessive genetic blood disorder characterized by red blood cells with an abonormal sickle shape; it occurs most frequently among people of African descent.
Tay-Sachs disease A recessive genetic disorder characterized by the lack of an important chemical in the brain resulting in brain damage.
What is the name of the lining of the uterus? Endometrium
________ is a genetic disorder of red blood cells. Hemophilia
Name the hormone that causes the lining of the uterus to thicken. Progesterone
What is the birth canal called? Vagina
What is the name of the structure where sperm mature and acquire the abilty to move? Epididymis
What is the process by which a mature egg is released from the ovary? Ovulation
What are the genetic disorders in whch the gene for the disorder is found on the X chromosome? Sex-linked disorders.
Name the male reproductive glands that produce testosterone and sperm. Testes
_______ is the endocrine gland that controls metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Pituitary gland
Name the large gland in the body that is shaped like a bow tie and is located at the front of the neck. Thyroid gland
The endocrine glands produce chemical substances known as ____________. Hormones
The reproductive glands are controlled by the ___________ glands. Thyroid
The testes hang outside the body within a sac known as the ___________. Scrotum
When a person is unalbe to reproduce, this is called what? Sterility
The process during which an egg matures and is released and the uterus prepares to receive it is called? Menstrual cycle
The average menstrual cycle last ________ days. 28
The menstual cycle can be as short as ________ days? 21
The menstrual cycle can be as long as _________ days? 35
T/F If a sexually mature male gets the mumps, he can become sterile. True
T/F - Exposure to certain chemicals will not cause sterility. False
________ is an area of uncontrolled cell growth that invades the surrounding tissue and destroys it. Cancer
T/F - the best time to do a breast self-exam is the week of your period. False
When is the best time to do a breast self-exam? The week after a menstrual period, when breasts are least swollen.
T/F - the best time to do a testicualr exam is after a cold shower. False
T/F - lumps are usually found on the front or sides of the testes. True
How many chromosomes are contained in your body? 46
How many chromosomes are considered sex chromosomes? 23
__________ genes are experssed whenever they are present. Dominant
_________ genes are only expressed when the dominant gene is not present. Recessive
A __________ is a section of a chromomsome that determines a single trait, such as earlobe shape. Gene
___________ are found in almost every cell in your body. Chromosomes
___________ is the passing on or transmission, of biological characteristics from parent to child. Heredity
______________ is an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes. Genetic disorder
T/F - Huntington's disease is a disorder that shows up whenever one gene is present. True
T/F - people who have Sickle-cell disease have a condition where their blood does not clot. False
T/F - Sickle-shaped cells can carry as much oxygen as normally shaped cells. False
T/F - Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder that can cause severe mental retardation. True
___________ is the result of an extra chromosome (chromosome 21). Down Syndrome
____________ is the most common sex-linked disorder. Color blindness
Created by: iVisKei