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World Religins final

T’ien heaven or where the gods live
She physical representation of gods.
Kuei agents of destruction
Shen spirits of nature
Yin-yang balance. Complimentary and necessary. Yang goes to heaven, yin stays on Earth.
Scalpumancy burn the bones of livestock. Scalp resembles shape of the universe.
I Ching Sacred texts because of Knowledge
Te rights of monarch, act on Mandate of Heaven.
Shu Ching Book of ancient Kingdom
Shih Ching Book of poems
I Ching Book of divination
Chun Chiu Kingdom of Lu, written by Confuscious
Li Chi records of ceremonies and rituals. Handbook.
Taoism/Daoism “The Way”
Tao Te Ching Basic text written by Lao Tzu. Very paradoxical, outlines basic principles.
Wu- Wei Non action. Go with the flow. Force is everywhere, it just happens.
Chiao relativity. Value and purpose only arise in something. Nothing is absolute.
Fu Return. All things return to its original state.
Confucius Founder of Confucianism. Teacher/ professor, at age 50 passes imperial exams and becomes disillusioned with society.
The Ancestors of Lun Yu aphorisms or sayings
Han Period academy with use of analects (124 BCE). Imperial academy.
Li Social/Moral conduct
Jen Compassion
Yi Righteousness
Te Virtue
Meng Tzu (Mencius) Disciple, next major Confucian thinker. Teachings were more popular. Government was compassionate and virtuous. Innate goodness of humanity.
Hsun Tsu (Xun Zu) Peace and order, good will follow. Humans born with desire, conflict is inevitable. Legalism comes out of this.
Shen-Tao or Kami-No-Michi Way of Spirits
Kami Spirits.
Kamikaze Divine wind. Kami interacts during ceremonies.
On Obligation of benefactors (ancestors, spirits and superiors) and respect to them.
Saisei- itchi religion and nationality. Divine aspects of emperor. All aspects of life in harmony.
Kojoki & Nihongi history, rites, rituals and beginnings of the world
Izanagi (male) and Izanami (female) creation story from Kamis. Created Japan.
Amaterasu Sun goddess. Ancestor of imperial family.
Shrine Shintoism lots of nationalistic, sentiments tied to shrines. Shrines devoted to emperors, deities and Kamis.
Sectarian Shinto large congregations that meet regularly. Due to Christian influences.
Folk Shinto cult practices, superstitions and house ceremonies are tied.
Kamidana ‘Shelf’ Kami, alter variety
Bonn Festival for the dead, souls return for feast.
Zarathustra or Zoroaster most influential preaching’s. Virgin birth, born laughing with animal protectors. Trained to be a priest, married three times with three sons and three daughters.
Vohu Mana Archangel. Good intention. Led Zoroaster into the presence of Ahura Mazda.
Ahura Mazda wise lord. Supreme god. Monotheism.
True religion What Ahura Mazda tells Zoroaster to preach. Much opposition and ridicule.
Maga Brotherhood community of followers, enormous power. Army and priests state religion.
Magi powerful, hereditary priestly class. Composed Maga brotherhood.
Avesta Sacred text, collection of sacred writings.
Yasna a collection of prayers and liturgical formulas, contain Gathas.
Gathas a group of hymns written by prophet Zoroaster.
Visparat composed in honor of and as invocation to the celestial lords.
Videvdat (Vendidad) a body of writings primarily concerned with ritual purification.
Khorde Avesta “Smaller Avesta,” a book of daily prayers that include the Yashts.
Yashts Collection of hymns and epic narrations concerning deities, kings and heroes.
Menog Spiritual worlds. Include many archangels/ avatars of Ahura Mazda.
Getig Sky, water, Earth, animals, mankind, fire. Earth worlds.
Ameshaspenta Bountiful or holy immortals
Satan evil, opposing force. Creates evil.
Ahriman advisory or Satan. Prompts evil deeds, deceiver, father of lies, source of death. Allows bad things to happen.
Cosmic dualism good god and evil advisory personify everything. Good vs. evil, light vs. dark.
Ash- Vants good
Dreg – Vants evil
Chinvat Bridge spans the abyss of hell and leads to paradise on the other side.
Hamestagan (purgatory of Christianity). Soul remains in an intermediate place if the good and evil deeds done in life balance.
Hushedar, Aushedar-Mah, and Saoshyant three saviors who bring completion and protection. Descendants of Zoroaster.
Atash Sacred fire. Presents divine purity, power and warmth. Each family has one. Greatest sin is to rid someone’s sacred fire or fire temple.
Dakhama Tower of silence, where body is left for the birds to eat.
Sada Hundred days feast
Naw Ruz new year. Very popular, mostly done in spring.
Fasli Spring equinox.
Avots Patriarch.
Abraham 1800BCE, city of UR, heard the voice of God and smashed idols of fathers religion. Semitic people were followers.
B’rit Covenant with ultimate goal to reach Canaan.
Hyksos Indo- Europeans flee to Jerusalem.
Moses Active during King Ramses reign. Basket baby. Shaman. Received and transmitted the divine Torah. Meets with God at Mt. Sinai and receives 10 Commandments.
Yahweh or Jehovah God of victory, creator (just to those who worship him).
Ethical monotheism “no other god” not necessarily monotheistic. Eventually retranslated to mean one god only.
Sabbath Saturday
Torah 5 books of law, primary book, written by Moses. Old testament.
She’ol Afterlife, ‘in the middle.’
Saducces Torah should be taken literally.
Pharisees conservative, tied to religion but not in charge. Viewed Torah and living tradition. God will eventually destroy the world.
Messiah God will intervene but leave you alone. Messiah will get rid of Rome.
Essenes Group that lives in dessert, purification in the form of baptism.
Zealots submission to Rome is forsaking god, long period of rebellion.
Dead Sea Scrolls Written by Essenes, more mystical.
Talmud Commentary on Torah
Zionism Political movement in 1870’s, search for a homeland. Emphasis on Palestine.
Kabbalists Mystical modern movements.
Hasidics ‘pious,’ formed in Poland. God is everywhere.
Sephardim Middle East and Spain.
Ashkenazim Spoke Yiddish and Hebrew, less mystical, approximately 70% .
Orthodox Largest group, stays true to biblical and Talmudic regulations. Strict observances of the Sabbath and food.
Reform Less rigorous than traditional practices. Modified restrictions on the Sabbath and diet. Synagogue services are conducted in vernacular and Hebrew.
Conservative Blended Orthodox and reform. More scientific based.
Reconstructionist American movement founded by Mordecai M. Kaplan. Cultural movement, Jews who don’t view themselves as religious.
Passover Pesach. Most important family festival in Judaism. “Feast of Freedom.”
Purim Festival of Lots. Commemorates the rescue of Persian Jews.
Shavuot (Weeks). Celebrated fifty days after the festival of Pesach. Commemorates the anniversary of the giving of the Torah by God to Moses on Mt. Sinai.
Rosh Hashanah Jewish new Year. Lunar calendar. 10 days of repentance.
Yom Kippur day of reflection, repentance, atonement. Second sacred Jewish holy day. Celebrated at the end of Rosh Hashanah.
Sukkot 5 days after Yom Kippur, 8 day feast. Harvest festival.
Jesus Founder. Born 4CE or 4BCE (era of mystery religions). Eventually viewed by some as Messiah or “Christos.” Virgin birth. Pure, divine, marked for greatness.
Crucifixion Jesus preaches for a year until arrested by Pilot. Criminal, crucified (common event in Roman empire). Last blood sacrfice, a savior, debt must be paid.
Resurrection 3 days later, resurrected. 40 days later, ascends to heaven.
Shavuot 10 days later, followers peak in tongues, filled with the Holy Spirit (Shamans)
The Canon Old Testament (Torah) through Apocrypha (hidden books). Bible settled at Council of Trent in 1546.
New Testament gospels, acts, epistles, revelation. Written approximately 30 years after Jesus’ death.
Fatherhood of God Every creature is a child of God. Every person can communicate, personalizes God. No person is unworthy of receiving God’s grace.
Union of Humankind Love God, Love everyone.
Sin ritual or inherent, unclear. Nature of Sin is not really described.
Paul Pharisee from Tarsus. Most influential person in Christianity. Apostle to the Gentiles. Roman citizen, opposes hellenization and mystery cults. Eventually has an epiphany on route to Damascus. Paul’s writings make sin become clear. Original and actual.
Lordship of Jesus Christians do not have to abide by Torah, accept Jesus. Made Christianity Non- Jewish.
Proselytization Becomes a major component of Christianity.
Creedo I Believe
The Apostle’s Creed 215AD. God as Father and Creator, Jesus as the Son of God, his death, burial and resurrection. Trinity is a problem, some Christians see it as polytheism.
Nicene Creed 325AD. Council in Nicea. Jesus is both Human and divine, God and man. Include trinity.
Agape Love
Eucharist Giving Thanks
Catechism Lessons to join the church, ends with baptism.
Unction Confirmation, sing of the cross (Catholic).
Gnostics Gnosis. Clear concept of good and bad, material world is degrading and vile.
Aeons Male and Female Spiritual beings (good)
Sophia Knowledge (bad) serpent in the garden
Divine Spark Soul animates, piece of God.
Edict of Milan 313AD, legalizes Christianity. Now two major forms, Catholic (unified) and Arians (Germany).
Antioch Nestorius (Bishop) believed human body was filled with the Holy Spirit. Questions status of Mary, body as a vessel for birth but she is not the mother of God.
Chalcedon 451AD, Council to settle Nestorius ideas, creates “church of the East” (heretics). Spreads extensively along silk road, settles in Persia.
Alexandria Monophysites, “one physical thing.”
Monasticism Organized asceticism practiced by orders of monks and nuns.
Holy Sees Leadership in 5 places – Constantinople, Rome, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem.
Schism of 1054 Communion is the way to the Cross. People versus Patriarch.
Roman Catholic Latin
Eastern Orthodox St. Cryil, St. Metholius. Greek, Russian and Slavic.
Protestants Martin Luther and the Reformation. Disillusioned with Catholic church, creates Lutheranism. Preaches in German. Focus more on personal belief than rights and rituals. Main focus – reject popes authority, more emphasis on vernacular, individual responsibi
Anglican Church Henry VII wants a divorce, leaves the Catholic church.
Calvinist begins in Geneva, Switzerland. Involved in community and predestination.
Sacraments Performance or outward sign through which divine grace is sought and conferred. Catholicism and Orthodoxy have seven. Protestantism has two (baptism and holy communion).
Baptism purification. Age varies. Ideas of original sin.
Confirmation/ Chrismation age seven to fourteen, initiation into faith. Eastern Orthodox.
Penance/ Confession Confess sins to a priest or straight to God.
Eucharist/ Holy Communion Bread (body), Wine (blood). Symbolizes last supper, absorb properties of God. Obtain eternal life.
Matrimony marriage, according to local customs.
Holy orders Calling to the faith, becoming a monk/nun/priest
Holy Unction/ Euchalion Death is imminent, prayers offered. Last rights. Orthodox believe soul stays until body has completely decomposed.
Christmas fixed festival celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ (December 25).
Advent Precedes Christmas, a solemn period of expectation and preparation.
Epiphany Follows Christmas, manifestation of Jesus (January 6). Commemorate the baptism of Jesus and the visit of the Wise Men.
Easter first full moon after vernal equinox. Easter bunny and eggs represent fertility.
Lent Solemn period of prayer and fasting, including Holy week. Mostly Catholic and Orthodox.
Islam submission and peace. One will submits to the will of God.
Jahiliyya age of ignorance in Arabian society.
Asabiya group solidarity focus. Led by Shakh.
Shakh Wealthy elder who was a leader, settled disputes, concerned with welfare of tribe. Demonstrates generosity.
Sharaf Nobility, elites. Anyone of higher lineage
Jinn Gene
Efreet Fire Spirits
Allah God
Hanif Monotheism, some ideas come from Judaism, other Christianity influences, both with transcendental afterlife.
Harma Sanctuary or place where violence is prohibited.
Mecca Point of pilgrimage. All gods here.
Umma a religious commitment that was to unite tribes more closely than ties of blood.
Qurayish Tribe that protects Mecca
Ka’ba House Abraham built (or black asteroid)
Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah Born ca 570. Talks to angel Gabriel who tells him he is a prophet of god and the seal or ‘last’ to come. Job is to preach the message of God.
The Hijra 622, migration or ‘flight’ from Mecca to Medina.
Shari’ a Laws, straight path.
Muhajirun Followers/ migrants who have converted
Salman Farsi Persian slave who helps Muhammad win battles against Mecca.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad. Debate over who it should be. Leads to split.
Abu Bakar close friend and father-in-law. Do not worship Muhammad, worship Allah. Community chooses Abu as Caliph. Maintained unity of ‘Umma.’ Led expansion into Egypt, Syria and Iran.
‘Umar ibn Abd- Al Kattab caliph after Abu Bakar. Good administrator. Helps organize Islamic state. Begins effort to collect Qu’ran, get things written down. Conquers Syria, Egypt and parts of Persia. Makes non- Muslims pay a ‘jizya.’ Assassinated in 644.
Jizya poll tax. Non-Muslims must pay. People did not like.
Kharaj Tax if you own land.
Ahl al- dimma People of the book. Jews and Christians. Muslims find a way to appease/ convert them.
‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan (644-656). Aristocratic. Knew Qu’ran, member of Quraysh Family. Well respected. Puts Qu’ran into final form, in order by chapter length, not chronological. Favors nepotism, “the family.” Puts members of Quraysh in charge. Enlarged Clapihal power. Replace
‘Ali (656 -661) Cousin/ Son in law of Muhammad. Finally elected as Caliph. Does not punish murderers of ‘Uthman. Opposes centralization of power, favored equal distribution. Eventually assassinated, couldn’t control empire.
Battle of the Camel 656, major opposition. Isha, Ali’s wife fights against.
Mu’awiya & Siffin 657, Mu’awiya does not grant Ali his allegiance. Go to arbitration.
Kharijites ‘leave’ radical sect.
Shahadan (Pillar 1) There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
Salat (Pillar 2) Prayer five times a day facing Mecca. Called to prayer by the Muezzin. Prayer proceeded by Ablutions. Friday is the “holy day,” not as extreme as Christian Saturday.
Zakat or Alms (Pillar 3) Not viewed as charity, but purification. Given to poorer members of one’s family or community. Thought that those who gave little would be judged severely. Not a fixed amount, sometimes paid in livestock.
Sawm (Pillar 4) Fasting during Ramadan or month when Qu’Ran was first revealed. Sunrise to sunset, no food, drink, sex or smoking. Month of Spiritual reflection.
Eid Al- Fitir Celebration feast at the end
Eid Al- Saghir Feast every evening
Hajj (Pillar 5) Pilgramage, obligatory but only once in a lifetime. Circulambulation of Kabba (black box).
Dhu al – Hijjan 12th month (pilgrimage)
Ihrama ritual purity.
Eid Al – Adha Feast of Sacrifice (animals).
Al- ‘umran Lesser pilgramage
Qu’Ran twenty years of revelations, came as needed, not all at once. Created text. Umar collected, ‘Uthmar organized. Word of God.
Hadith Collections of traditions of the prophet. Two parts – Matn (text, what was written) and Ishad or Sanad (the chain of people, who told it. Must be legitimate. Footnote).
Abraham Islam is the religion of Abraham. First monotheist who practiced Islam. Muslim.
Tawhid Oneness of God
Jinn & Efreet Air and fire spirits
Jihad holy war. Struggle or striving. Greater and lesser. Combat has rules of engagement. Obligation of ruler to participate in Jihad.
Mujahid/ Mujahidim Person or people who participate in Jihad.
Ghazi warriors of the faith.
Dar Al – Harb Abode of War, everyone else.
A Kritoi Christian warriors
Sharia Islamic Law. Custom and traditions formed by Islamic ethics.
‘Ibadat ritual regulations
Mu’amalat rules of social relations
Imama theory of collective organizations.
FIQH Law is recognized. Study of Islamic law. (Hanifi – Iraq, Maliki – Medina, Shafi’I – Egypt, Hanbali – Iraq, Awza’I, Zahiri)
Wajib or Fard Obligatory, punishable
Mandub encouraged
Mubah Permissible
Makruh Discouraged
Haram Prohibited, strictly illegal
Qadi Judges, appointed and applied law. Uses different sources and methods. Qu’ran is ultimate source, but doesn’t address everything
Sunna & hadith traditions of the prophet
Ijma Consensus of the community. Locust of religious authority.
‘Ulama’ Religious scholars, jurorists
Ijtihad exertion or effort
Mujtahid Someone who does Ijtihad well.
Qiyas reason by analogy
Fatwa authoritative legal opinion.
Istihsan Judges opinion reflects public opinion.
Taqlid imitation of what has been done
Shi’Ism Imom is successor to Mohammad to lead/ guide the community.
Mufti Legal consult
Faiqh Jurist, law students, professors
Muhtasib inspector. Served as “morality police.”
Hanifi Abu Hanif, non – arab in Iraq. Tolerates Ijtihad. More liberal
Maliki Founded by Malik ibn Anas. School of law from Medina, felt you can only transmit Hadith in ritual state. Wrote Muwatta (trodden way) earliest textbook on law. Appreciated amal or local practices. Spread to Egypt.
Shafi’i Founded by Abu Abdallah. Muhammad ibn Idris al Shafai’. Believed all of Shari’ah could be derived from Quran. Wanted to eliminate bida or innovation. Utilizes Ijma, aiyas, and hadith. Wrote al-risalah or epistle.
Al- Risalah Epistle, finest book of Islamic law.
Hanbali 30,000 Hadiths in one collection. Literal interpretation of Qu’ran with no allegorical interpretation, literal. Fatwas was source but only if coming from companion of prophet. Ijma was based off Qu’ran and Sunnah. Distrusted human deduction of the law.
Madhhabs Institutions. Method of instruction, pre 10th Century. Source of identity. Became centers of religious scholarship. Some people based their identity off of school membership (medieval period).
Madrasas Religious colleges
Waaf Endowment made to colleges.
Asabiya (ibn Khaldun) Focus on identity. Religion and law replaces tribal identity. Began looking for rulers that associate with school.
Shia Islam began as a political party, partisans to Muhammad. Encounters between Ali and Muhammad, Ali was chosen as successor. 10% of Muslims are Shia. Believe leadership should come from family of Prophet. More oppressed group because they never recognized legiti
Hasan and Husayn Ali’s sons. Should have been leaders (caliphs). Husayn throws revolution against Umayids in Kufa.
Battle of Karbala (680) Shrine of Husayn. Major political movement
Imam Shia leader is rightful ruler, understand will of God.
Ayatollah Understands what Imam and Mahdi wants, teach people.
Safavid Dynasty 1500-1722, mostly in Iran. Legalizes all things Shia
Ja’Far Al- Sadiq Imam who legalizes all things Shia.
Zaydis (Shi’ite) disagree with twelve caliph view. Lead by imams. Each Imam has hass or authority. Argues principle of appointment is pointless, based on merit.
Hass Authority given to Imams. Pointless, should be based on merit.
Taqiyya in dangerous situations, okay to pretend you’re not a Shia. God will know what’s in your heart.
Ismalis most radical Shia’s. imams almost deified, leaders worshipped. “seveners”
Batini esoteric
Qarmati 700’s dominate Syria, Iraq, Palestine.
Fatmid North Egypt
Nizaris Assassins. Ate weed, mostly in Pakistan.
Bohras India
Twelvers Recognize all 12 imams.
The Usul Al’ Iman Essential to the faith
‘Adl Just of God. God is removed from every evil act. God provides knowledge of godo ro evil to everyone. God sends messages through prophets to remind humanity of its innate disposition.
‘Imamah or imamte Religion will survive. Power/guidance of Imam.
Marja – al Taqlid or Ayatollah model on how to follow God.
Furu khums, a tax on all wealth. Portion goes to need, descendants of prophets and imam.
Majalis Pilgramage to shrin of Husayn.
Ashura in Muharam 10th day, 10th month. Holiday for Husayn.
Muta’ a man and woman can enter into a temporary marriage. Offspring is responsibility of man.
Sufism begins around 10th & 13th Century before esoteric, Gnostic beliefs of Muslims. Wore Suf (coarse , wool robe).
Ijaza Certificate and ‘khirqa” or cloak received from master after completing study. Awards represent equality.
Silsilas Chain of authority, link to other people, who you studied with.
Khalifas Delegates
Tariqa brotherhood. Disciples. Relationship with teacher and students.
Shaykh or Pir leader
Zuhd Asceticism. Shun distractions
Faqir Individual who practices Zuhd
Dhikr Process by one makes contact, embraces god. Singing, chanting. Enter ecstatic state.
Ribat or Khanqahs different physical presence. Place of worship, lodging.
Shadhiliya North Africa and Egypt
Qadiriya Arab World and Africa
Kubriya Central Asia
Naqshbandiya Central Asia & India
Yasaviya Central Asia
Chistiya India
Walai Friends of God
Antimonian Sufis Very flagrant in disrespect with normal society. Bizarre dress. Persecuted for bizarre attitudes/ actions. Qalandriyya.
Fana annihilation of self, loose personal identity.
Al- Hallaj I am the truth/God. Blursh self with God
Wahhabism Muhammad ibn Abd al –Wahhab. Viewed society as jahiliyya (period of ignorance, pre Islamic period). Denounced Sufism and Sufi customs. Muslims need to return to Sharia through moral and social revolution and strict interpretation of the Qu’Ran. Uses Itji
Sharif Descendants of Muhammad in executive positions. Members of Ulamma
Salafist Seek to address modern challenges by returning to the time of Muhammad. Only accept Qu’ran and Sunna. Argue against taqlid or corrupted influences. Just because it’s non-western doesn’t mean it’s bad.
Salaf precede, ancestors.
Islamism More radical, militant and violent Salfists. Opposed to secularism. Subordination of religion to state. Basically Al Quaeda.
Taliban ‘the students’ Deobani Islam & Wahhabism combined. Opposed syncreticism, wants to maintain Sufi spirituality. Advocates social justice. Very strict orthodoxy, school formed in 1867. Modern day, very literal and anti-Shia, very exclusive.
Shah- Waliullah Friend of God.
Mormonism Fastest growing Christian religion. Some consider it a cult, founded by Joseph Smith.
Angel Moroni visited Joseph Smith, book of Mormon is reveled to him.
Book of Mormon Describes how to fix flaws of other Christian religions. “Lost tribe syndrome.” Native Americans.
“Book of Commandments” and “Doctrine & Covenants” Published by Joseph Smith
Brigham Young 1801 – 1877 takes over and moves group to Salt Lake City, UT. Utah made a state and must now follow rules of Federal government (no polygamy).
Bahai Comes from Baha’ u’llah. “For the glory of God.” Focus on love of God and love of people. Center is in Israel
The Bab hidden Imam – Ali Muhammad. “gateway to god” oneness/ unity.
Baha’ u’llah helps spread religion from Baghdad to Adrianople (Europe). Actively proselytizes, moves to Palestine.
Effendi Successor, “servant of glory.” Goes on world tour in 1908, writes Divine Plan.
Kitab- l Aqdas book of Baha’ U’llah laws
Kitab – l lqan Revelations
Nawruz New year, must get married
Ridvan Festival from April 21 to May 2
Russellism Original name for Jehovah Witnesses, founder Charles Taze Russell. Organized groups with different views from mainstream Christianity (no trinity). Have witnessed Jesus already coming.
“Zion’s Watchtower” Sacred text, gains followers.
Joseph Franklin “Judge” Rutherford Next leader, helps spread. Believe Jehovah is creator and true God. Jesus is separate. Holy spirit is a force but not a person.
Armageddon Battle between God and the devil. God wins. Chosen elect will be alive and resurrected. Non believers cease to exist.
Mary Baker Eddy Founder, combines Christianity and Science. Convinced Healing came from Jesus. God is your whole life, not the cause of sorrow and sickness. Combines theology of healing and psychotherapy.
“Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures” Published in 1875 by Mary Baker Eddy
Christian Science Monitor Newspaper
L. Ron Hubbard Founder, 1911- 1986 (Science fiction writer)
MEST Matter, energy, space and time.
Thetan Going clear. Individual conscience can escape.
“Dianetics” Holy book
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