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Ms. SmithUrban Geo

Barron's Review Book Chp 8 Urbanization

QuestionAnswer
ACTION SPACE the geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis
BEAUX ARTS this movement within city planning that stresses the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones. Common characteristics include wide roads, spacious parks, and civic monuments that stressed progress, freedom, and national unity
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge
CENTRAL PLACE THEORY A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world
COLONIAL CITY cities established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures
CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core, or central business district
EDGE CITY cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized urban environment
EUROPEAN CITIES cities that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period whose characteristics include narrow buildings, winding streets, a big church that predominently marks the city center, walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
EXURBANITE Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas
FEUDAL CITY cities that arose during the Middle Ages and represent a time of relative stagnation in urban growth. This system fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants who worked their land.
GATEWAY CITY cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas
GENTRIFICATION the trend of middle- & upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods
GHETTOIZATION a process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources
HINTERLAND the market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developed world.
INNER CITY DECAY those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations because of changes in industry or migration to the suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty
ISLAMIC CITIES cities in Muslim countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs. They have mosques at their center and walls guarding their perimeter. Open-air markets, courtyards , and dead-end streets in neighborhoods characterize these cities
LATIN AMERICAN CITIES cities that owe much of their structure to colonialism, the rapid rise of industrialization and population. They have distinctive sectors of industrial or residential development out from the CBD, where most industrial and financial activity occurs.
MEGACITIES cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration has caused them to explode in population since World War II. They are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty
MEGALOPOLIS several metropolitan areas that were originally separate but have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex
METROPOLITAN AREA within the USA, an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units, usually containing several urbanized areas or suburbs that act together as a coherent economic whole
MODERN ARCHITECTURE point of view wherein cities and buildings are thought to act like well-oiled machines, with little or no energy spent on frivolous details or ornate designs.
MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place
NODE geographical centers of activity. A large city, such as Los Angeles, has numerous nodes
POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE a reaction to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors
PRIMATE CITY a country’s leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater that other urban areas within that same country
RANK-SIZE RULE rule that states that the population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the country’s hierarchy when the distribution of cities according to their sizes follows a certain pattern.
SECTOR MODEL a model of urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors
SEGREGATION the process that results from suburbanization when wealthy individuals leave the city center for the suburbs. This process isolates those who cannot afford to relocate to suburban neighborhoods and must remain in poorer pockets of the central city
SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
SUBURB residential communities, located outside of city centers, that are usually relatively homogeneous in terms of population
URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARY geographical boundaries placed around a city to limit suburban growth within that city
URBAN MORPHOLOGY the physical form of a city or urban region
URBAN REVITALIZATION the process occurring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the building of new shopping districts, entertainment venues, and cultural attractions to bring young urban professionals back to the cities
URBAN SPRAWL the process of expansive suburban development over large areas spreading out from a city, in which the car provides the primary source of transportation
WORLD CITY centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce
Created by: smithho