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APHG CH 8 VOCAB

Wahowski Cy Lakes

QuestionAnswer
Binational/ Multinational State A state that contains more than one nation.
Balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing alliances
Centripetal Force Bind people together in a state giving the state more political strength and unity
Centrifugal Force Breaks the people of a nation apart causing the state to lose strength.
City State A sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside
Cold War War between the communist Soviet Union and the democratic US that had no bloodshed but caused tension globally
Colonialism Effort by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on such territory.
Colonies Dependent areas
Command Economy Type of economy with socialist principles of centralized planning and state ownership
Compact State The distance from the center to any boundary is about the same giving it a shape similar to a circle. Promotes good communications among all regions.
Confederal System Type of government that spreads the power among many sub-units (such as states) and has a weak central government
Core Area Area that is typically central and expands outward along their frontiers. Growth stops when the boundary bumps up again other nation states.
Cultural Boundary Boundaries between some states that are set by ethnic differences especially by language and religion.
Democratization The process of a nation becoming a democracy: 1. Civil liberities, 2. Rule of Law, 3. Checks and Balances, 4. Open Civil Society 5. Control of the military
Devolution Tendency to decentralize decision making to regional governments.
Positional Disputes States argue where the border actually is.
Territorial Disputes Disputes over the ownership of a region, usually around their mutual borders.
Resource Disputes Disputes over natural resources
Functional Disputes Disputes when neighboring states can not agree on policies that apply in a border area.
Economic Force Economic inequalities may also destabilize a nation-state
Electoral Geography The study of how the spatial configuration of electoral districts and voting patterns reflect and influence social and political affairs.
Elongated States States that have long and narrow shapes
Enclaves Nations that are landlocked within another country
Exclaves Small bits of territory that lie on coasts separated from the state by the territory of another state.
Ethnic Force When a state contains strong ethnic groups with identities that differe from those of the majority, it can threaten the territorial integrity of the state itself.
Ethnonationalism The tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to utonomy or independence
European Constitution Constitution passed by the European Union that allows common markets, currencies political policies and defense for European nations within the European Union
European Monetary Union Central bank in Europe that allows common currency of the Euro.
European Union Regional organization in Europe that brings European nations together economically, politically, and socially
Federal System Type of government that divides the power between the central government and the sub-units.
Forward Capital If the capital city serves as model for national objectives
Fragmentation Divisions based on ethnic or cutlural identity
Fragmented State States that have several discontinuous pieces of territory
Frontiers A geographic zone where no state exercises power, no boundaries
Geometric Boundary Straight imaginary lines that gernerally have good reason behind them
Gerrymandering Redrawing boundaries to improve the chances of a certain political candidate to win more seats/ votes
Geopolitics Study of the spatial and territorial dimensions of power relationships within the global political-territorial order.
Globalization
Government A reference to the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for the country
Heartland Theory Theory where the "pivot area" of the Earth is Eurasia and it holds all of the Earth's resources both natural and human to dominate the globe.
Imperialism Empire building
Institutions Stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy
Integration A process that encourages countries to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout.
Internal Boundaries Modern countries divide their territory into sections
Irredentism When settlers settle into another territory ruled by another nation.
Landlocked States States lacking ocean frontage and surrounded by other states. They are typically at a disadvantage for trade, sea resources transportation and communication.
Mackind, Sir Halford Developed the Heartland Theory, based off of British global empire
Market Economy Type of economy where citizens can make their own economic choices
Marketization The state's re-creation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value
Microstates Smallest nations in the world
Minority/ Majority Districting Rearranging districts to allow a minority representative to be elected
Perforated States A state that completely surround another country
Mixed Economy Type of economy that allows the government to have some control over the people's economic choices
Monetary Policy Control of the money supply
Muticore State States with more than one core area
Nation Group of people that is bound together by a common politicy identity
Nation-State State whose territorial extent coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation or people whose population shares a general sense of unity and allegiance to set of common values
Nationalism A national consciousness
Physical Boundary Phsycial features that are used to separate nations or territorities
Political Culture Collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on
Political Geography The study of political organization of the planet
Politicalization of religion Arguement of the separation of church and state in a nation
Politics Which group or nation has all of the governing power
Primate City Largest city in a nation (usually the nation's capital)
Privatization The transfer of state-owned property to private ownership
Prorupted States Compact state with a large projecting extension
Ratzel, Friedrich Theory of the state being an organism that needs to grow along a life cycle
Relative Location Where a state is located compared to other states
Rimland Theory Challenged the Heartland Theory and said that the coast lines of Eurasia held the key to global power
Security Council The decision making body in the United Nations
Separatist Movement Nationalities within a country may demand independence.
Spatial Force spatially devolutionary events most often occur on the margins of the state.
Spykman, Nicholas Created the rimland theory
Stateless Nation People without a state
States countries
Supranational Organization Large organization of multiple states
Territorial Morphology Describes the shape, sizes, and relative locations of states
Territoriality Efforts to control pieces of the Earth's surface for political and social ends
Thrid Wave of Democratization Characterized by the defeat of dictatorial or totalitarian rulers
Three Pillars Spheres of authority in the European Union
Unitary State System that concentrates all policymaking powers in one central geographic place.
Created by: smw11209