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BMMS 7history ch14

BMMS 7 history chapter 14 (Reformation)

Clement V pope who moved the center of the Catholic Church from Rome, Italy, to Avignon, France
Martin Luther German monk who led a fight with the Catholic Church
Reformation the term used to describe the movement of opposition against the Catholic Church in the 16th century
John Wycliffe English philosopher and priest who questioned the pope's right to levy taxes and appoint Church officials without the king's approval
Protestants name for Christians who broke with the Catholic Church during and after the 16th century
indulgence the relaxation of earthly penalty for sin; a pardon for sin
Desiderius Erasmus Dutch priest and scholar who criticized both Church officials and the people calling for reform
Martin V pope, elected in 1417, who began healing the church
Great Schism the split that divided the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417
Ninety-Five Theses document listing Luther's disputes with the Church, including the selling of indulgences
John Calvin a French reformer who believed in the idea of predestination
predestination the belief that people are chosen for salvation (heaven or hell)before they are born
Jesuits a religious order established in the 1530s, also known as the Society of Jesus
Ignatius of Loyola the founder of the Jesuits
Inquisition a court that investigated people who wandered from Catholicism
missionaries Christian groups who go to foreign countries to do religious work
convert to adopt a new religion
mendicant type of religious order that owned nothing and lived by begging
Dominican religious order that was among the first to join the Spanish and Portuguese voyages to the Americas
Catholicism religion that spread into the Americas primarily through Spanish explorers
Peace of Westphalia the 1648 agreement that recognized the permanent division of Western Europe into Catholic and Protestant nations
mercantile term that describes the type of economies that allowed Protestant countries to gain wealth
presbytery a body of leaders and ministers that shared in the governing of certain churches
covenant Puritan agreement with God through which they believed they could be saved
federalism the sharing of power between an organization, such as a Church or government, and its members