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Unit 3: Culture

Ch.4 Barrons / Ch.4, 5, 6, 7 Rubenstein

The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another Acculturation
Most prevalent in Africa and in the Americas, docturine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers Animism
In South Africa that physically seperated different races into different geographic areas Apartheid Laws
Any item that represents a material aspect of culture Artifact
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates, informally Autonomous Religion
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities Balkanization
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other. Balkanized
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood. Blockbusting
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the U.K. British Received Pronounciation BRP
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people- such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization Buddhism
System in INdia that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in their next life, through their actions, or karma. Caste System
The world's most widespread religion. It is a monotheistic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide. Its 3 major categories are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox. Christianity
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe. Cosmogeny
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it. Creole
The group of traits that define a particular culture Cultural Complex
Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three Cultural Extinction
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space Cultural Geography
Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose Cultural Hearth
The dominance of one culture over another Cultural Imperialism
The specific customs that are part of everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture Cultural Trait
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government Culture
Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group Custom
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems Denomination
Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form Dialect
People who come from a common ethnic background but live in different regions outside of the home of ethnicity Diaspora
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church Diocese
Dialect spoken by some African-Americans Ebonics
The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans Ecumene
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions Environmental Determinism
A constructed international auxiliary language incorporating aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create an universal means of communication Esperanto
The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide Ethnic Cleansing
An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background Ethnic Neighborhood
Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts. Ethnic Religion
Refers to a group of people who share a common identity Ethnicity
Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system Evangelical Religion
Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smell, sounds, and rituals of everyday existance in the traditional societies in which they developed Folk Culture
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of "Franfaise and anglais" the French words for French and English respectively. Franglais
The strict adherence to a particular doctrine. Fundamentalism
A premediated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group Genocide
A segregated ethnic area within a city Ghetto
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual Habit
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control Hierarchical Religion
A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and institutions such as the caste system Hinduism
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people Indo-European Family
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. It is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad Islam
Geographical boundary lines where differen linguistic features meet Isoglosses
The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live Judaism
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families. Language Branch
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. This process has greatly accelerated during the past 300 years Language Extinction
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue, long ago that have since evolved different characteristicss Language Family
A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics Language Group
An extremely simple language that combines aspects of 2 or more other, more complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication Lingua Franca
The ability to read or write Literacy
A language that is written as well as spoken. Literary Tradition
Religions that are spiritually bound to particular regions Local Religion
A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region Minority
A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented Missionary
The worship of only one god Monotheism
Having to do with many cultures Multicultural
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there Nationality
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality Nation-City
Language in which all government business occurs in a country Official Language
Follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times Pagan
Language that may develop when 2 groups of people with different languages meet. It has some characteristics of each language. Pidgin
A journey to a place of religious importance. Pilgrimage
A multilingual state. Polyglot
The worship of more than one god. Polytheism
Dynamic culture based in large, heterogenous, societies permitting individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties Popular Culture
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics Race
Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian Romance Languages
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination. Sect
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves Self-Determination
The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture Shaman
A person who works the fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landover a share of the crops Sharecropper
Language family that spreads through most of SE Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean Sino-Tibetan Family
The form of language used for official government business, education, and mass communications Standard Language
Traditions that borrow from both the past and present Syncretic
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom. Taboo
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communication, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment Tertiary Sector
A cohesive collection of customs withing a cultural group Tradition
The expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, an dother related processes Transculturation
A practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to the Caribbean Islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa Triangle Slave Trade
Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe Universalizing Religion
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents Vulgar Latin
Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe. Global Religion
Created by: elefan12
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