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APHG Terms II

All vocab terms for units 5-8 in Barron's

QuestionAnswer
Antecedent Boundaries A boundary line established before an area is populated
Balkanization The contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
Buffer State A relatively small country sandwhiched between two larger powers. Prevents dangerous conflicts.
Centrifugal Forces Forces that tend to divide a country
Centripetal Forces Forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
Colonialism The expansion and perpetuation of an empire
Commonwealth of Independant States Confederacy of independant states of the former Soviet Union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs
Compact state A state that posesses a roughly circular oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
Confederation A form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
Domino Theory The idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries starting a chain reaction of collapse
East/West Divide Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
Electoral College A certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state's population.
Electoral Vote The decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominant views of that electors state
Elongated State A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
Enclaves Any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
European Union International organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Exclave A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
Federalism A system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government
Fragmented state A state that is not a contiguous whole but rather separated parts
Frontier An area where borders are shifting and weak and where peoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay claim to the land
Geometric Boundary Political Boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines
Geopolitics The study of the interplay between political realations and the territorial context in which they occur
Gerrymandering The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or candidate
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in teh heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Imperialism The perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign
International Organization An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up eithers autonomy or self-determination
Landlocked State A state completely surrounde by the land of other states
Law of the Sea Law estabilishing state's rights and responsibility concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Lebensraum Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German People
Microstate A state or territory that is small in both population and area
Nation A tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
Nationalism A sense of national pride to such an extent as exaulting one nation above all others
Nation-state A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homegeneity and unity
North American Free Trade Agreement Agreement signed on January 1, 1994 that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada
North Atlantic Treaty Organization An international Organization that has joined together for military purposes
North/South Divide The economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe, N. America, Japan, and Australia, and the generally poorer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Organic Theory The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth maturity and old age
Organization of Petoleum Expoting Countries An international econimic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil
Perforated State A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
Physical Boundary Political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers
Political Geography The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes
Popular vote The tally of each individual's vote within a given geographical area
Prorupted State A state that exhibits a narrow elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
Reapportionment The process of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories
Rectangular State A state whose territory is rectangular in shape
Redistricting The drawing of new elcoral boundary lines in response to population changes
Relic Boundaries Old polical boundaries that no longer exist as international borders but that have left and enduring mark on the local culture or environemntal geography
Rimaland Theory Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the costal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
Self-determination The right of a nation to govern itself autonomously
Sovereignty Supreme or independant political power
State A pollically organized territory that is administered by a sovereugn government and is recognized by the international community
State's Rights Rights and Powers believed to be in the authority of the state rather than the federal government
Subsequent Bounaries Boundary line established after and area has been settled that considers the social and cultural characteristics of the area
Superimposed boundaries Boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing culural pattern
Supranational Organization Organization of thee or more states to promote shared objecives
Territorial Dispute Any dispute over land ownership
Territorial Orgaization Political Organization the distrubtes political power in more easiy governed units of land
Theocracy A state whose government is either beilieved to be divinely or a state under the control of a religious group of leaders
Unitary State A state governed constitutionally as a unit without interal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
United Nations A global supranational oragaization established at the end of WWII to foster international security and cooperation
Agglomeration Grouping together of many firms of the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing labor reserves
Ancillary Activities Economic activities that surround and support large-scale industries such as shipping and food service
Anthropocentric Human-centered; refers to ideas that focus solely on the needs of the people in sustainable developement
Least-Cost Theory A concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing facility in relation to the costs of transport and labor, the relative adavantages of agglomeration or deglomeration
Least-Developed Countries Those countries including countries in Africa except South Africa and parts of South America and Asia that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living
Manifacturing Region A region in which manufacturing activities have culstered together
MAQUILADORAS Those US firms that have factories just outside the United STates/Mexican border in areas that have been specially designated by the Mexican government.
Net National Product A measure of all the goods and services produced by a country in a year
Nonrenewable resources Natural Resources that so not replenish themslves in a time frame that is relevant for human consumption
Offshore Financial Center Areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions and thus have become centers for banking and finance
Outsourcing Sending industrial processes out for external production
Periphery Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living
Primary Ecnomic Acitivities Econimic activities in which natural reources are made avaliable for use or further processes (mining, logging, fishing)
Producivity A measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country
Purchasing Power Parity A monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries
Quaternary Economic Activities Economic activities concerned with research information gathering and administration
Quinary Ecnomic Activities The most advanced form of quaternary activities consisting of high-level decision making for large corporations or high-level scientific research
Regionalizaiton The process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country
Renewable resources Any natural resource that can replenish itslef in a relaively short period of time usually no longer than the length of a human life
Rostow's Stages of Development A model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries
Rust Belt The manufacturing region in the United States that is currently debilitated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheaper labor and relaxed environmental regulations
Secondary Economic Activities Economic activities concerned with the processesing of raw materials such a manufacturing, construction, and power generation
Semi-periphery Thos newly indutrialized countries with median standards of living (China, Brazil, India, Chile, Indonesia)
Service-Based Economies Highly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunication
Slow world The developing world that does not experience the benefits of high-speed telecommunications and transportation technology
Spatially Fixed Costs An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located
Spatially Variable Costs An input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place
Specialty Goods Goods that are not mass-produced but rather assembled individualy or in small quantities
Sustainable Development The idea that people living today should be able to meets their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same
Tertiary Economic Activities Activities that provide the market exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and providers of services
Transnational Corporation A firm that conducts business in at least two separate countries; also multinational
World Cities A group of cities that form a interconnected internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
World-Systems Theory Theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections first established at the beginning of exploration
Argibusiness The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes
Agriculture The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption
Animal Husbandry An agricultural activity assiciated with the raising of domesticated animals such as cattle horses sheep and goats
Biotechnology A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products to make or modify plants and animals or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
Capital-Intensive Agriculture Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods
Commercial agricultural economy All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling
Dairying An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock most commonly cows and goats for dairy products such as milk cheese and butter
Desertification The process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid unproductive and desert-like
Domestication The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves
Extensive agriculture An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
Feedlots Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing
Fertile Cresent Area located in the cresent-shaped zone near the southwestern Mediterranean coast which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity
Genetically Modified Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes
Green Revolution The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increaed technology
Hunting and Gathering The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits roots nuts and other plants for sustinence
Industrial Revolution The rapid economic changes that occured in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the ladn 18th century and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world
Intensive Cultivation Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficent use of labor on small plots land to maximize crop yield
Labor-intensive agriculture Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful
Livestock Ranching An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West
Mechanization In agriculture the replacement of human labor with technology or machines
Mediterranean Agriculture An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of chile and Australia in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes avocados and olives comprise profitable agricultural operations
Pastoralism A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
Pesticides Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals
Planned Agricultural Economy An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution
Plantation A large frequnently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land dedicated to the production of a single export crop
Salinization Process that occurs when soils in arid areas brought under cultivation through irrigation.
Shifting Cultivation The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost.
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited.
Specialty Crops Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples which are produced usually in developing coutries for export
Subsistence agricultural economy Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family consumption
Swidden Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method
Topsoil Loss Loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost through erosion
Transhumance The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns generally lowlands areas in the winter and highland areas in the summer
Urban Sprawl The process of urban areas expanding outwards usually in the forms of suburbs and developing over fertile agricultural land
von Thunen Model An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent.
Action Space The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis
Beaux Arts This movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older classical forms with newer industrial ones
Central Business District The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores offices and cultural activities are concentrated
Central place Theory A theory formulated by Walter Chistaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations
City Beautiful Movement Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school.
Colonial City Cities established by colonizing empires as admistrative centers
Concentric Zone Model Model that describes urban environment as a series of rings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core or central busines district
Edge City Cities that are located on the outskirts or larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas but in a sprawling decentralized subruban environment
European Cities Cities in Europe that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the same characteristics such as extreme density of development with narrow buldings and winding streets and ornate church that prominently marks the center
Exurbanite Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas
Feudal City Cities that arose during the Middle Ages and that actually represent a time of relaive stagnation in urban growth
Gateway City Cities that because of their geographic location act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas
Gentrification The trend of middle and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations and changing he social character of certain neighborhoods
Ghettoization A process occuring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs adn resources
Hinterland The market area surrouning an urban center which that urban center serves
Inner city Decay Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs
Islamic cities Cities in muslim countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs
Latin American Cities Cities in Latin America that owe their structure to colonialism the rapid rise of industrialization and continual rapid increases in population
Megacities Cities mostly characteritic of the developing world where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since WWII
Megalopolis Several Metroplitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large sprawling urban complex
Metropolitan Area Within the United States an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units usually containing several urbanized areas that all act together as a coherent economic whole
Modern Agriculture Point of view wherein cities and buildings are supposed to act like well-oiled machines with little energy spent on frivolous details or ornate designs
Multiple nuclei Model Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of busines and cultural activity instead of one central place
Node Geographical centers of activity
Postmodern Architecture A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture
Primate City A country's leading city with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country
Rank-size Rule Rule that states that the population of any given town should be inversley proportional to its rank in the country' heirarchy when the ditribution of cities according to their size follows a pattern
Sector Model A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge shaped sectors radiating out from the center along transporation corridors
Segregation The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homogenous subeuban neighborhoods
Squatter Settlements Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
Suburb Residential communities located outside of city centers that are usually relatively homogeneous in population
Urban Growth Boundary Geographical boundaries placed around a city to limit suburban growth within that city
Urban Morphology The physical form of a city or urban region
Urban Revitalization The process occuring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the construction of new shopping districts entertainment venues and cultural attractions to entice young urban professionals back into the cities
Created by: Daisy Archer