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Unit 2: Population

Ch. 3 Barrons / Ch.2 & 3 Rubenstein

A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid. Age Sex Distribution
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after WW2 and a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better eduaction and job opportunities, and high rates of marriage and fertility. Baby Boom
Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the Baby Boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. Baby Bust
Small county subdivisions usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 people, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions. Census Tract
The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community. Chain Migration
Number of deaths per 1000 children within the first 5 years of life. Child Mortality Rate
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistically unit. Cohort
The term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region. It is now called the Sun Belt. Cotton Belt
The number of live births per year per 1000 people. Crude Birth Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1000 people. Crude Death Rate
An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period, taking into account both natural increase and net immigration. Demographic Accounting Equation
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time. Demographic Transition Model
Ratio of the number of people who are either too old or too young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support thme through their own labor. Dependency Ratio
Process of moving out of your country of origin Emigration
Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. It is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population. Exponential Growth
The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will. Forced Migration
The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intention of remaining there. Immigration
The % of children who die before their 1st birthday within a particular country. Infant Mortality Rate
The permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular country Internal Migration
The average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races. Life Expectancy
Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production. Thomas Malthus
Number of deaths per 1000 of women giving birth. Maternal Mortality Rate
A long term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another. Migration
The differences between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country. Natural Increase
Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations. Neo-Malthusian
Measurement of the number of people per unit land area Population Density
A division of human geography concerned with variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population. Population Geography
Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place Pull Factors
Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place. Push Factors
The northern, industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s-80s, these states lost their economic base to cheaper southern labor. Rust Belt
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown dramatically since WW2. Sun Belt
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years. Total Fertility Rate
Movement of an individual who consciously and volunarily decides to locate to a new area. Voluntary Migration
Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs. Zero Population Growth
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals no longer relied entirely on huntng and gathering. Agricultural Revolution
scientific study of population characteristics Demography
Number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. Doubling Time
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Epidemiological Transition
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiology
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlements. Ecumene
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Industrial Revolution
Medical technology diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. This eliminatedmany of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Medical Revolution
Number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Overpopulation
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of population. Pandemic
The number of males per 100 females in the population. Sex Ratio
Large-scale emigration by talented people Brain Drain
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclinical movements that recur on a regular basis. Circulation
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries. Counterurbanization
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends. Floodplain
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs. Guest Workers
Permanent movement from one country to another. International Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another. Interregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country. Intraregional Migration
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition Migration Transition
All types of movement from one location to another. Mobility
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. Net Migration
In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year Quota
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion Refugees
People who enter a country without proper documents. Undocumented Refugees
A complete enumeration of a population. Census
The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support. Carrying Capacity
A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years of 1965 and 1980. This post-baby-boom generation will have to support the baby-boom cohort as they head into their retirement years. Generation X
Created by: elefan12



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