Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

APHG Terms

All vocab terms for units 1-4 in Barron's

Anthropogenic Human-induced changes on the natural environment
Cartography Theory and practice of making visual representations of the earth's surface in the form of maps
Cultural Ecology The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in
Cultural Landscape The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a partcular culture or society
Earth System Science Systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a gobal scale
Environmental Geography The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment
Eratosthenes The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumfrence. He is also credited with coining the term geography
Fertile Cresent Name given to cresent-shaped area of fertile land streching from the lower nile valley, along the Mediterranean coast, and into Sybia and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
Geographical Information Systems A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographical area
Global Positioning System A set of satellites used to help determine location andywhere on the earth's surface with a portable electronic device
Idiographic Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
George Perkins Marsh Inventor, diplomat, ploitician, and scholar, his classic work, MAN AND NATURE, OR PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AS MODIFIED BY HUMAN ACTION, provided the first descriptions of the extent to which natural systems ha been impacted by human actions
Natural Landscape The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities
Nomothetic Concepts or rules that can be applied universally
W.D. Pattison He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition
Physical geography The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface
Ptolemy Roman geographer-astronomer and author of GUIDE TO GEOGRAPHY which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude
Qualitative data Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography. often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives
Quantiative Data Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association
Quantitative Revolution A period in Human Geography asociated with the wide-spread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques
Region A territory and encompasses many places that share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere
Regional Geography The study of geograohic regions
Remote Sensing Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images
Carl Sauer Geographer from the University of California at Berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment.
Sense of Place Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a paricular place
Spatial Perspective An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it spatially related to the phenomena in other places
Sustainability The concept of using the earth's resources in such a way that they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing the earth's ability to provide for future generations
Systematic Geography The study of the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place
Thematic Layers Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship
Absolute Distance The distance that can be measured with standard unit of length such as a mile or kilometer
Absolute Location The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
Accessibility The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
Azimuthal Projection A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
Breaking point The outer edges of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
Cartograms A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the relative area
Choropleth Map A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
Cognitive Map An image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind.
Complementarity The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
Connectivity The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
Contagious Diffusion The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
Coordinate System A standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
Distance Decay Effect The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
Dot maps Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurences, such as crimes, car accidents, or birth
Expansion Diffusion The spread of ideas, innovation, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
Friction of Distance A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Fuller Projection A type of map projection that maintains the acurate size and shape and landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions no longer have any meaning
Geoid The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and obulate, or slightly squashed
Gravity Model A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
Hazards Anything in the landscape, real or percieved, that is potentially threatening
Hierarchial Diffusion A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common
International Date Line The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, on the 180th meridian
Intervening Opportunities The idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity.
Isoline Map line that connects point of equal or very similar values
Large-Scale A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Higher resolution
Latitude The angular distance north or south of the equator defined by lines of latitude or parallels
Law of Retail Gravitation Law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
Location Charts On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
Longitude The angular distance east or west of the equator. Meridians
Map Projection A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface
Mercator Projection A true conformal cylindrical map projection. Useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction
Meridian A line of longitude that runs north-south.
Parallel An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south
Peters Map Projection A cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
Prefernce Map A map that displays individual preferences for certain places
Prime Meridian An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude
Proportional Symbols Map A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographical location
Reference Map A map type that shows reference information for a particular place making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating
Relaive Distance A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places
Relative location The position of a place relative to place around it
Relocation diffusion The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration
Resolution A map's smallest discernable unit.
Robinson Projection Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors
Scale The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface
Site The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
Situation The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system
Small-scale Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small
Spatial Diffusion Refers to the way in which phenomena travel over space
Stimulus Diffusion When a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another
Thematic map A type of map that displys one or more variables within a specific area
Time-space convergence The idea that distance between some places is acutally shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places
Topographic maps Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations.
Topological space The amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance separating them
Transferability The costs invovled in moving goods from one place to another
Visualization Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive
Age-sex Distribution A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
Arithmetic Density The number of people living in a given unit area
Baby Boom A cohort of individuals born during 1946 and 1964 which was just after WWII in time of relative peace a prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility
Baby Bust Period during the 1960s and 70s when fertility rates dropped as large numbers of women sought higher levels of education and more competetive jobs causing them to marry later in life
Carrying Capacity The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support
Census Tract Small county subdivisions delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions
Chain Migration The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community
Child Mortality Rate Number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life
Cohort A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and consequently treated as a statistical unit
Cotton Belt The term by which the American South used to be known as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region
Crude Birth Rate The number of live births per year per 1000 people
Crude Death Rate The number of deaths per year per 1000 people
Demographic Accounting Equation An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration
Demographic Transition Model A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time
Demography The study of human populations including their temporal and spatial dynamics
Dependancy ratio The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or too young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor
Doubling Time Time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely
Emigration The process of moving out of a particular country usually the individusl's country of origin
Exponential Growth Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year
Forced Migration The migration event in which individual's are forced to leave a country against their will
Generation X A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the united states between the years 1965 and 1980. This post-baby boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years
Immigration The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intention of remaining there
Infant Mortality Rate The percentage of children who dies before their first birth day
Internal Migration The permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within an area or country
Intervening obstacles Any forces or factors that may limit human migration
Life expectancy The average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races
Thomas Malthus Author of the ESSAY ON POPULATION who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while while food production increases arithmetically
Maternal Mortality Rate Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth
Migration A long term move of person from one political jursudiction to another
Natural Increase Rate The difference between the numer of births and number of deaths within a community
Neo-Malthusian Advocacy of popluation control programs to ensure enoguh resources for current and future populations
Overpopulation A value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area that are not great enough to support that area's current population
Physiologic Density A ratio of human population to the area or cropland used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agricultre
Population Density A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area
Population Geography A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population
Population Pyramid A model used in population geography to show the average age and sex distribution of a population
Pull Factors Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place
Push Factors Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place
Refugees People who leave their home because they are forced out but not becaused they are being officially relocated or enslaved
Rust Belt The northern part of the united states including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity
Sun Belt US reguion mostly conprised of southeastern and southwestern states which had grown more dramatically since WWII
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children born to a woman during her child-bearing years
Voluntary Migration Movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area
Zero Population Growth Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs
Acculturation The adoption of cultural traits such as language by one group under the influence of another
Animism Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers
Buddhism System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization
Caste System System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth
Christianity The world's most widespread religion. A monotheistic universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide
Creole A pidgin language that evoles to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it
Cultural Complex The group of traits that define a particular culture
Cultural Extinction Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three
Cultural Geography The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space
Cultural Hearth Locations on the earth's surface where specific cultures first arose
Cultural Imperialism The dominance of one culture over another
Cultural Trait The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture such as language religion ethinicity social institutions and aspects of popular culture
Culture A total way of life held in common by a group of people including learned features such as language ideology behavior technology and government
Custom Pratices followed by the people of a particular cultural group
Denomination A particular religious group usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems
Dialect Geographically distinct versions of a single language that varys somewhat from the parent form
Diaspora People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity
Ecumene The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans
Environmental Determinism A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions
Esperanto A constructed international auxiliary language incorporating aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create a universal means of communication
Ethnic Cleansing The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethinicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide
Ethinic Neighborhood An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
Ethinic Religion Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts
Ethnicity Refers to a group of people who share a common identity
Evangelical Religions Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system
Folk Culture Refers to constellation of cultural practices that form the sights. smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed
Fundamentalism The strict adherence to a particular doctrine
Genocide A premediated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group
Ghetto A segregated ethnic area within a city
Global Religion Religion in which members are numerous and widesread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from and region around the globe
Hinduism A cohesive and unique society most prevalent in India that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system
Indo-European Family Language family including the Germanic and Romance Languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people
Islam A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's profit.
Isoglosses Geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet
Judaism The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live
Language Extinction This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people
Language family A collection of many languages all of which came from the same original tongue long ago thaat have since evolved different characteristics
Language group A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
Lingua Franca an extermely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other more complex languages usually used for quick and efficent communication
Literacy The ability to read and write
Local religion Religions that are spiritually bound to particular regions
Minority A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnic group in a particular area or region
Missionary A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented
Monotheism The woship of only one God
Multicultural Having to do with many cultures
Offical Language Language in which all government business occurs in a country
Pidgin Language that may develop when two groups of people with differing language meet
Pilgrimage A journey to a place of religious importance
Polygot A multilingual state
Polytheism The worship of more than one god
Pop(popular) Culture Dynamic culture based in large heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individulaism, innovation, and change.
Race A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns, or genetically inherited characteristics
Romance Language Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian
Shaman The single person who takes on the roles of priest counselor and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture
Sino-Tibetan Family Language area that spreads through most the Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese Japanese Burmese Tibetan and Korean
Syncretic Traditions that borrow from both the past and present
Toponym Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements terrain features and streams
Transculturation A cohesive collection of cultural traits through diffusion adoption and other related processes
Universalizing Religion Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe
Created by: Daisy Archer
Popular AP Human Geography sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards