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Unit 1: Location

Ch.1 & 2 Barrons / Ch.1 Rubenstein

Human-induced changes on the natural environment anthropogenic
The study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in. cultural ecology
The human-modiified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society cultural landscape
Systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale earth system science
Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental on graphical analysis. He argued that no land escaped alteration by human activities. Carl Sauer
Individual maps of specific features that are of another in a Geographical Information System to understand spatial relationship Thematic layers
The study of the earth's integrated systems instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single space systematic geography
The concept of using the earth's resources in such a way, that they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing ability to provide for future generations sustainability
An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places spatial perspective
Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain events and memories associated with a particular place Sense of Place
Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images. remote sensing
The study of geographical regions Regional geography
A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques. Quantitative Revolution
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association. Quantitative Data
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives Qualitative Data
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system or latitude and longitude Ptolemy
The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface Physical geography
He claimed that geography drew from 4 distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition W.D. Pattison
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally Nomothetic
The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities natural landscape
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place idiographic
Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions George Perkins Marsh
A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data Geographical Information Systems
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq, where agriculture and early civilization first began about 800 Fertile Crescent
The head librarian at Alexandria during the 3rd century B.C.; he was one of the 1st cartographers. He performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography" Eratosthenes
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa Environmental Geography
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as mile or kilometer. Absolute Distance
The exact position of an object or place, measured with the spatial coordinates of a grid system. Absolute Location
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place Accessibility
A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface. Azimuthal Projection
The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area ofa city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply. Breaking Point
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area Cartograms
A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area. Chloropleth Map
An image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. They can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places. Cognitive Map
The actual or potential relationship between 2 places, usually referring to economic interactions Complementarity
The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between 2 places Connectivity
The spread of a disease, innovation,k or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place. Contagious Diffusion
A standard grid, composed oflines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface. Coordinate System
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births. Dot Maps
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange Expansion Diffusion
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places Friction of Distance
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such tat the four cardinal directions no longer have any meaning Fuller Projection
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator than it is along the meridians from north-south circumference. Geoid
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between 2 places based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other Gravity Model
Anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. These are usually avoided in spatial behavior. Hazard
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the 2 places have in common. Hierarchial Diffusion
The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180 degree meridian. International Date Line
The idea that if one place has a demand for some good or service and 2 places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the 2 suppliers to the buyer will block the 2nd from supplying its goods and services due to transportation. Intervening Opportunities
Map lines that connects points of equal or very similar values. Isoline
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. These maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions. Large-Scale
Law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a larger influence on the hinterlands that surround them. Law of Retail Gravitation
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction. Location Charts
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. The type of map that results from this process will have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape. Map Projection
A true conformed cylindrical map projection, this projection is useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. It is famous for its distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized. Mercator Projection
A line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles. Meridian
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are 3-D or interactive. Visualization
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another. Transferability
The amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance seperating them. Topological Space
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. Topographic Maps
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places. Time-Space Convergence or Space Time Compression
A type of map that displays one or more variables such as population, or income level within a specific area. Thematic Map
Spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space. Spatial Diffusion
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels. Latitude
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians. Longitude
An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator. Parallel
A map that displays individual preferences for certain places. Preference Map
A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol-such as a circle or triangle-indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region. Proportional Symbols Map
A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating. Reference Map
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance seperating 2 places. It often describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between 2 places. Relative Distance
The position of a place relative to places around it. Relative Location
A map's smallest discernable unit. Resolution
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each. Robinson Projection
The ratio between the size of an area on the map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface. Scale
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics. Site
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. They usually depict large areas. Small-Scale
The number of farmers per unit area of farmland Agricultural Density
The total number of peopel divided by the total land area. Arithmetic Density
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to faciliate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States Base Line
The science of making maps. Cartography
The spread of something over a given area. Concentration
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. Connections
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition. Culture
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. Density
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time. Diffusion
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin. Distance Decay
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface Distribution
A 19th and early 20th century approach to the study of geography that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities. Environmental Determinism
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics. Formal Region
An area organized around a node or focal point. Functional (or Nodal) Region
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers. Global Positioning System
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope. Globalization
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 degree longitude. Greenwich Mean Time
The region from which innovative ideas originate. Hearth
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control. Hierarchical Religion
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to faciliate the sale of land to settlers. Land Ordinance of 1785
The position of anything on Earth's surface. Location
A 2D or flat representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it. Map
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a stud area. Pattern
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. Physiological Density
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character. Place
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area Polder
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. Possibilism
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to faciliate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States. Principal Meridian
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map. Projection
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features. Region
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area. Regional (or cultural landscape) Studies
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another. Relocation Diffusion
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use. Resource
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections. Section
The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context. Situation
The physical gap or interval between two objects. Space
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory Situation factors
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. Stimulus Diffusion
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface Toponym
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into these. Township
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located. Transnational Corporations
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy. Uneven Development
An area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity Vernacular (or Perceptual) Region
Created by: elefan12
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