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Barron 3rd ed Ch 7

Agriculture & Rural Geography

the set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. it includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products. AGRIBUSINESS
the art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption. AGRICULTURE
an agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
a form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes. BIOTECHNOLOGY
form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods - a process requiring very little human labor. CAPITAL-INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
all agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY
an agricultural activity involving raising livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter. DAIRYING
the process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like. DESERTIFICATION
the conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves. DOMESTICATION
an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area. EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as a factory farm FEEDLOTS
area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the Southeastern Mediterranean coast (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey), which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and thus, agricultural activity FERTILE CRESCENT
foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD (GMO)
the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizeers transferred from the developed to the developing world to alleviete the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe. GREEN REVOLUTION
the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts and other plants for sustenence HUNTING AND GATHERING
the rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
any kind of of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield. INTENSIVE CULTIVATION
type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful LABOR-INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
an extensive commercial activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West. LIVESTOCK RANCHING
in agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology and machines. MECHANIZATION
agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, Chile & Australia, in which specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE
a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter PASTORALISM
chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who igest the chemicals PESTICIDES
an agricultural economy found in communist countries in which the govenment controls both agricultural production and distribution PLANNED AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY
a large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop. PLANTATION
process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid areas, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile SALINIZATION
the use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites. SHIFTING CULTIVATION
system of cultivation that is usually seen in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then set on fire. The ash acts as fertilizer, making the land productive for a short period of time. SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE
crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produces, usually in developing countries, for export. SPECIALTY CROPS
any farm economy in which most of the crops are grown for family or local consumption SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
land that is prepared fro agriculture by using the slash-&-burn method SWIDDEN
loss of the top fertile layer of soil is lost through erosion. It is a tremwndous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains. TOPSOIL LOSS
the movements of livetock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in winter, and highland areas in the summer. TRANSHUMANCE
the process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile land. URBAN SPRAWL
a theory that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. VON THUNEN MODEL
Created by: smithho
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