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The study of microorganisms and their place or role in their environment. environment Microbiology
___________ is any disruption of normal body functioning. Disease
Microorganisms that cause disease are called Pathogens
simple single celled organism and are found virtually everywhere. (Strep, staph) Bacteria
Not celled, smaller & simpler structured than bacteria. They require a living cell to enter to reproduce. All viruses cause disease. Viruses
Single celled animals. Most live in fresh water and consume bacteria, fungi & each other. Protozoa
Unicellular or multicellular structure which decompose matter in soil, freshwater and help recycle nutrients. Fungi
Multicellular animals. Most are free living and non pathogenic. Simple multicellular animals which live within hosts & use the host’s blood or nutrients as food. Worms
multicellular animals which serve as vectors of disease. They carry pathogens from host to host when they bite to obtain blood. Arthropods
Binomial nomenclature: The first word is capitalized and is the __________. Genus
Binomial nomenclature: The second word is lower case and is the ___________. species
Natural population of microorganisms living on or within us are called ______________. Normal Flora
those species that live on or in nearly everyone almost all the time. They live in specific sites and do not cause disease. If they should leave their specific site they can and usually cause disease. These are known as ____________. Resident Flora
Species that are found periodically on or in the body. Transient Flora
___________ is caused by microorganisms or by the products(toxins) of microorganisms. Infectious disease
__________ is the ability of the pathogen to cause disease. Virulence
______ is total of the body’s defenses against pathogens. Resistance
___________ is a clinically apparent infection. Symptoms are evident and are measurable Symptomatic
___________ are subclinical or inapparent infections. Symptoms are not evident. Asymptomatic
_____________ is someone who is asymptomatic but has the infection and can transmit it to others. Also called carriers Reservoirs
List the course of infectious disease. Incubation, Prodromal, Invasion, Acme, Recovery
What is incubation? Period of exposure before symptoms appear
_____________ is when vague non specific symptoms may appear. Prodromal
___________ is when specific symptoms of the illness appear. Invasion
This is the height or worst part of the disease. Acme
When the host recovers from the disease or death occurs this is called what? Recovery
When an infection is confined to one area of the body it is known as ___________. Localized
When a pathogen has spread throughout the body by way of the lymph or blood it is called what? Systemic
Define Bacteremia / Septicemia: When bacteria are preset in the blood and are being circulated throughout the body.
When an infection begins abruptly and is severe it is called? Acute
When an infection progresses slowly and may last for a long time it is called? Chronic
A ________ infection is made possible by a primary infection that has lowered the host’s resistance. Secondary
_________ infections are acquired in hospitals or other institutions. Nosocomial
___________ is an outbreak of a disease with more than the usual number of cases in a given period of time is classified as what? Epidemic
_________ is an outbreak of a disease in a population with an expected or usual number of cases in a given period of time this is classified as what? Endemic
Pandemic is defined as___________. an epidemic that has spread throughout several countries
Define Zoonoses animal disease that people acquire in certain circumstances. (Swine flu / Bird flu / Mad cow)
A _____________ is a disease which cannot be transmitted directly or indirectly from host to host. Non-communicable
___________ is when the pathogen may be transmitted directly or indirectly from host to host. Communicable
Define Contagious. A communicable disease that is easily spread from host to host by casual contac such as(cutaneous contact or respiratory droplets)
Define Antiseptic. a chemical that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth on a living being.
Disinfectant is ______________. a chemical that is used on inanimate objects.
Bactericides do what? kill bacteria by disrupting important metabolic processes
What do bacteriostatic chemicals do? They do not destroy bacteria, but inhibit their reproduction and slow their growth.
The process that destroys all living organisms is called what? Sterilization
Coccus have a ________ shape. sphere
Bacillus are _____ shaped. rod
Spirillum have what shape? long cell with one or more curves
Staphylo have ____________ of cells clusters
Strepto have _________ of cells chains
Diplo have _____________ of cells pairs
Which viruses can cross the placental barrier and affect a developing fetus? German measles, HIV, Chicken Pox
Give an example of a virus that can cause initial infection and then go dormant and can reappear months or years later. Herpes
Ectoparasites live where? on the surface of the body
Give an example of an Arthropod? Scabies, mites, head lice.
What is a vector? Insects that carry and transfer disease.
_________ is an infection that originates within the body. Endogenous
_______ are infections that originate from outside the body. Exogenous
What is another name for a tumor? Neoplasm
_____________ is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation. Cancer
____________ are invasive cells that multiply excessively & can infiltrate surrounding tissue. Tend to bleed, ulcerate, & become infected. Poorly differentiated & do not resemble the tissue of origin. Can metastasize. Malignant Cancer
______ tumors are non cancerous – develop slowly from any tissue, tend to remain encapsulated & do not infiltrate surrounding tissue. Well differentiated cells & resemble the tissue of origin. Benign
How do we classify neoplasms? Benign and Malignant
_____________ are characteristics of a malignant neoplasm? multiply excessively & can infiltrate surrounding tissue. Tend to bleed, ulcerate and become infected. Poorly differentiated & do not resemble the tissue of origin.
_____________ are characteristics of a benign neoplasm? non cancerous – develop slowly from any tissue, tend to remain encapsulated & do not infiltrate surrounding tissue. Well differentiated cells & resemble the tissue of origin.
What is the major cause of death in children & young adults? Physical trauma
The most severe shock is called? Anaphylaxis
Can gentic mutations only be caused spontaneously or are there other causes? There are other causes.
Diffusion of molecules, requiring carrier enzymes is called? Facilitated diffusion
Teh engulfing of something by a moving cell is called? Phagocytosis
The engulfing of something by a stationary cells is called? Pinocytosis
The diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane is called? Osmosis
The movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration is? Diffusion
Water & dissolved materials move through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure is called? Filtration
The use of energy to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration is called? Active Transport
Columnar cells with cilia on their free surface, forming tracheal lining sweeping mucous and bacteria towards the pharynx, and the fallopian tubes to sweep the ovum toward the uterus is? Ciliated epithelium
Many layers of cells, surface cells are alternating round or flat which permits stretching of the urinary bladder as it fills. Transitional epithelium
One layer of flat cells, forming the alveoli of the lungs, capillaries & permits gas exchange, also lines arteries and veins and is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting of the blood. Simple squamous epithelium
Many layers of cells with cell surface being flat, forming the epidermis of the skin and the lining of the mouth and esophagus. Stratified squamous
One layer of cube shaped cells, sereting the hormones of the thyroid gland and also secreting the saliva of salivary glands. Simple cuboidal epithelium
One layer of cells that are taller than they are wide, forms the stomach lining and secreting gastric juices, also forms the lining of the small intestine and may have microvilli to increase the surface area of absorption of nutrients. Simple columnar epithelium
Unicellular glands consist of only one cell, a common example would be a ______________ cell that secretes mucous. Goblet
The name for nerve cells is ____________, and these cells are specialized to generate & transmit _________________. Neuron, Electrochemical impulses
What is the function the cell body? Brain center of the neuron houses the neucleus.
What is the function of the axon? (tail) Send impulses away from the body.
What is the function of the dendrite? (arms) Sends impulses toward the body.
What is the membrane that surrounds the outside of the chest cavity. Parietal pleura
The lining that incases the lungs is called what? Visceral pleura
What is the name of the membrane that lines the inside of the abdominal cavity? Peritoneum
What is the lining that surrounds the stomach? Mesentary
The sac that incases the heart is called what? Visceral Pericardium
The most external lining around the heart is called what? Parietal pericardium
What is a synapse? The gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron.
In the tendons & ligaments and are strong to withstand forces of movement are called what? Fibrous Connective tissue
With in the walls of the trachea and supports to keep the airway open also on joint surfaces and is smooth to prevent friction this is what? Cartilage
This is found in the subcutaneous layer and it stores excess energy and helps cushion eyes & kidneys what is this? Adipose Tissue
This is found within blood vessels and it carries various cells and transports materials...what is it? Blood
This is the wall of large arteries and it helps maintain blood pressure and promotes normal exhalation of the lungs. Elastic Connective tissue
Found in the subcutaneous layer, it connects sking to muscles and has WBC to prevent pathogen entry. Areolar Connective Tissue
This supports the body and protects internal organs and stores calcium. Bone
Endocrine glands have ducts and their secrtetions such as hormones enter through capillaries and their ducts. True or False False
Exocrine glands have no ducts and their secretions enter the body through capillaries such as the salivary glands and sweat glands. True or False False
Define Mitosis Cell division that takes palce in all cells except sex cells in order to reproduce.
Define Meiosis Cell division of sex chromosomes...starts iwth 46 (diploid) and divides twice to make 23 (haploid). 23 male chromosomes and 23 female chromosomes.
Created by: kbcanarr