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A&P II Mid-term

Anatomy & Physiology II Mid-term

What are the major organs in the urinary system Kidneys Ureter Bladder Urethra
Define micturition process of eliminating urine
Which kidney is superioir (Right or Left)? Left
The outermost layer of the kidney is known as? Renal capsule
What are the functional units of the kidney? Nephron
Spherical structure consisting of glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule) and capillary networks (glomerulus) is known as? Renal corpuscle
The kidney is supplied by which artery? Renal artery
Blood is delivered to the glomerulus by the? Afferent arterioles
Name 3 segments in the renal tubules PCT (proximal convoluted tubule),Nephron loop, DCT (distal convoluted tubules)
The distal convoluted tubule empties the filtrate into which structure? Collecting duct
What processes occur at the DCT? secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins, reabsorption of water
The collecting system drain urine into which structure? minor calyx
What are the goals of urine production? maintain homeostasis regulates volume/composition of blood, excretion of waste
True or False, the PCT reabsorbs the majority of the filtrate? True
The function of aldosterone is? Reduce sodium loss in the urine (reabsorbs sodium and water)
the function of ADH is to? conserve free water
The color of urine comes from urobilin
constriction of the afferent arterioles entering the glomerulus will increase or decrease the filtration rate? decrease
What stimulates the release of renin from the juxtaglomerular complex? decrease in blood pressure
Is a hollow, muscular organ that functions as a reservoir for urine urinary bladder
The Thyroid Cartilage is also known as? Adam’s apple
Functions of Renal Tubules include: Reabsorb useful organic nutrients that enter filtrate, Reabsorb more than 90% of water in filtrate, Secrete waste products
knot or network of capillaries within the renal corpuscle is known as? glomerulus
Hydrostatic pressure that forces water through membrane pores is known as (this is waht occurs in the glomerulus)? Filtration
Asexual reproduction, or mitosis, is the process by which: cells make exact copies of themselves
Type of reproduction that requires assistance of another individual to produce offspring that are not identical to themselves: sexual reproduction
In humans, total number of chromosomes needed is: 46 Chromosomes
Who determines the sex of the baby? Father
passageways for eggs to get to uterus are known as? fallopian tubes
valve-like portion of uterus that protrudes into vagina (common places for collection of cells for pap smear) is known as? cervix
The Uterus consists of 3 layers: Endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium
Spiral radial arteries supply this layer of endometrium (decays and regenerates every month as part of the mentrual cycle) Functional layer
Occurs when endometrial tissue escapes uterus and implants in abdominal cavity. Endometriosis
This condition causes painful intercouse, urination, and bowel movements Endometriosis
Tube, approximately 10 cm long, running from uterus to outside of body: Vagina
External opening of vagina may be covered by perforated membrane called: Hymen
small erectile structure, 2 cm in diameter in the female reproductive system is known as? clitoris
milk production controlled by this hormone: prolactin
The menstrual cycles takes about ___ days. 28 days
Purpose of menstraul cycle is to: release egg for fertilization, prepare uterus to receive fertilized egg
Menstruation is term referring to actual shedding of: endometrium (period itself)
This is the phase when the endometrium is proliferating (growing) and follicles (eggs) maturing (fist half of the menstrual cycle) follicular of proliferative phase.
Time between ovulation and menses is known as: luteal, or secretory, phase
a primary follicle will become a secondary follicle in this stage in a females life: puberty
Successfully fertilized egg has this number of chromosomes and now called a _____ ? 46 chromosomes, zygote
This hormone triggers ovulation: LH
This hormone initiates development of primary follicles each month. FSH
Progesterone’s effect on uterus is to: maintain buildup of endometrium
implanted fertilized egg secretes a hormone called (shows up as positive pregnancy test) hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Sx include: depression, anger, irritability, anxiety, confusion, withdrawal breast tenderness, bloating, swelling extremities, headache
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)ischaracterized by: Formation of multiple cysts on ovariesHormonal abnormalities, Infertility, Obesity, Insulin resistance, Facial hair, acne
The organs of the endocrine system include: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal (suprarenal glands) glands, pancreas, gonads (testis, ovaries)
This gland controls the pituitary gland Hypothalamus
This gland is divided into anterior and posterior sections and is controlled by the hypothalamus Pituitary
this gland produces melatonin Pineal gland
This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland and controls the thyroid gland TSH (thyroid stimulating hornmone)
These hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary: OXT and ADH
This hormone controls the production of breast milk PRL (prolactin)
This hormone controls the excretion of breast milk OXT (oxytocin)
This gland regulates the immune system Thymus
The adrenal (suprarenal) gland is divided in two layers called: Cortex, medulla
Steroid hormones are produced mainly in the: adrenal (suprarenal) cortex
Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism are: wt. loss, tremors, heat intolerance, increased heart rate, loose stools or diarrhea, sweating
Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism are: wt. gain, cold intolerance, depression, constipation
This is needed to produce thyroid hormone: iodine
These are the two types of thyroid hormone T3,T4
This is the most accurate INITIAL test to determine thyroid disease TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Some of the hormones produced in the ANTERIOR pituitary include: ACTH, TSH, PRL, LH, FSH
These hormones control the gonads: LH, FSH
The most common cause of cushing's syndrome is: Medication (steroids)
This gland is located inferiorly to the hypothalamus: pituitary
bulging eyes (Exophthalmos) is characteristic of this thyroid disorder: Graves
A disease caused by low thyroid levels during fetal development and leading to severe mental retardation is known as: cretinism
The pancreas produced these endocrine hormones: Insulin, glucagon
Type I diabetes is characterized by: Autoimmunity, lack of insulin production, skinny or normal wt. patients, typically seen in <30 years old
Type II diabetes is characterized by: insulin resistance, obesity, age >30 years-old,
This is the most common type of stone: Calcium
urine production requires 3 processes: filtration, reabsorption, secretion
The filtered blood is taken away by the: RENAL VEIN
3 layers of the kidneys are: Renal capsule, cortex, renal medulla
What is the renal medulla columns of collecting tubules
The nephron is divided into two major parts: Renal corpuscle (filter), and renal tubules
The filtrate from the glomerulus travels to the outside is this order: proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule, collecting duct, minor calyces, major calyces, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra
Sx of kidney stones: hematuria, fever, nausea, flank pain, nausea
Dx of kidney stones: History, physical exam, U/A, ultrasound
A genetic disorder where large cysts are found in the kidney: Polycystic kidney disease
Sx of polycystic kidney disease: hematuria, hypertension, cysts, UTI, pain, cerebral hemorrhage
In order to form urine the nephron must perform: glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion
Filtrate is reabsorbed back into the blood stream via the: peritubular capillaries
This substance is completely reabsorbed in the blood stream and should not appear in urine: glucose
Created by: bismark



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