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Heme Final

Hematology Overall final questions - all sheets

QuestionAnswer
What is aplatic anemia? Failure of bone marrow to produce normal number of RBC, WBC & platelets
What causes sickle cell anemia? People who have the disease inherit two copies of the sickle cell gene; gene causes the body to make abnormal hemoglobin
What two anemias would the test electrophoresis be ordered to diagnose? Sickle cell & Thalassemia
When is iron deficiency seen in women? Menstration / Pregnancy (Women of reproductive age)
When is iron deficiency seen in infants 6 to 24 months old? Babies that are on a milk only diet (Iron storeage from mom have been used up)
When is iron deficiency seen in men? Cronic blood lose (EX: Internal bleeding in GI trac)
What are all the hemolytic anemias we studied? Sickle cell - Thalassemia - Spherocytic - Erythroblastosis - Fetalic
What do hemolytic anemias have in common? RBC decreased - bilirubin Increased (Waste)
What does the bone marrow lack that causes pernicious anemia? Vitamin B 12; - Intrinsic factor is a protein made in the stomach that helps your body absorb vitamin B12.
When is there an increased demand for folic acid? Pregnancy; - Folic acid helps produce and maintain new cells. This is especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy.
Define Hemostasis - Stoppage bleeding
What are the three parts of the coagulation system? Vasscular system; - Platlets; - Cloting factors that form fibrin clot
What are three functions of platelets? Form plug; - Release substances used to form fibrin; - Clot retactions (Prevent bleeding)
What are the three stages in the formation of a fibrin clot? 1 - Formation of prothrombin activator; 2 - coversion of prothrombin to thrombin; - 3 - Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
Where do the factors from the extrinsic system originate? From damaged tissue
What substance is necessary for the formation of the fibrin clot? Calcium
What is another name for calcium? Factor IV
Define thrombocytopenia - Decreased platlet count
Where do you see thrombocytopenia? Pernicious (Lack of Vitamin B 12; - Aplastic (Platlets low)
Define qualitative platelet defect - Have normal number of platlets, but poor function
What factor is missing in Hemophilia A? Factor VIII
What factor is missing in Hemophilia B? Factor IX
What is another name for factor IX? Christmas factor
What are the two main causes of acquired clotting factor deficiency? Liver disease (The liver makes 8 of the factors); - Vit K deficiency (liver require Vit K to to make 4 of the factors made by the liver)
What does PT stand for? Prothrombin Time (Amount of time it takes to form a fibrin clot)
What does the PT measure? Extrinsic pathway & coumadin
What does coumadin affect? Factor VII
What does APTT stand for? Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
Define APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) - Time it takes to form a fibrin clot from intrinsic
What does APTT measure? Intrinsic & Hemprin threapy
What does knowing the APTT measurment screen for? Factor VIII & IX
What colored stopper tube is used for coagulation studies? Blue
What additive is in a blue tube? Sodium Citrate
What to remember when using a blue tube? Do not use first 5mm of blood for testing
**** Next questions come from - Hematocrit, Indices & Sedimentation Rate sheet
What are the abbreviations for the hematocrit test? 1 - Hct; - 2 - PCV (Packed Cell Volume)
How are Hb & Hct related? Hb x 3 = Hct +/- 3 units (EX: If Hb is 12 Hct would be 33% to 39%
When is the Hct increased? Polycvthemia vera - Dehydration
When is a Hct decreased? Anemia - Leukemia - During pregnancy(Due to extra fluid)
What kind of capillary tube is used to perform an Hct from tube blood? Plain (Empty) Blue stripe
What kind of capillary tube is used to perform a hematocrit from finger puncture? Hepernized
How full is a properly filled tube? 2/3 to 3/4 full
What three points are located to read an Hct result? 1 - 0 (Bottom of packed cells; Meniscus (100% or top) 3 - Where hematocrit (Hct) ends at buffy coat (%)
What units are used with the Hct result? % (percent)
What are the normal values for a Hct result? Women 36 - 45%; - Men 42 - 52%
What are sources of error when doing an Hct? 1 - Centrifuse inadequate; (Wrong length or speed) 2 - Trapping RBC, WBC, Platlets, Plasma in RBC count; 3 - Failure to mix tube; 4 - Leaking blood from the plug; 5 - Reading part of the buffy coat as part of RBC
What does MCV stand for? Mean Corpuscular Volume
What does MCV tell the doctor? Average volume of one RBC Corpuscular, which is used to classify anemia (Normal is 82 - 99 Femtoliters)
What does MCH stand for? Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
What does MCH tell the doctor? Normal wt in Hb in RBC, which is used to select additional tests to determine cause of aemia (Normal is 26 - 34)
What does MCHC stand for? Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
How does MCHC help the doctor? Monitor response to treatment (Tells the cromic or color)
What term will describe the RBC's if the MCV is 82 - 99fl? Normocytic (Normal size)
What term will describe the RBC's if the MCV is less than 82fl? Microcytic (Cells are too small)
What term will describe the RBC's if the MCV is greater than 99fl? Macrocytic (Cells are too large)
What term will describe the RBC's if the MCHC is 31 - 37%? Normocromic (Normal color)
What term will describe the RBC's if the MCHC is less that 31%? Hypocromic (Central area is pale)
Define sedimentation rate? Rate at which RBC settle out from the plasma
What is the abbreviation for the sedimentation rate? ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
What units are used with the sedimentation rate results? mm/hr (millimeters per hour)
What are the normal values for ESR? Men 0 - 15 mm/hr; - Women 0 - 20 mm/hr
In general, when is the ESR increased? 1 - Inflamation; 2 - Infection; 3 - some malignant cancers (It is a non specific screening test
Name 3 diseases when the ESR is increased. 1 - Rheumetiod arthriyis; 2 - TB; 3 - Pneumonia;
When do you read the ESR result? At 60 minutes
What two mothods are used to perform the ESR? Westergren (Taller tube) & Wintrobe
What are sources of error for the ESR? 1 - Excess anti coagulant caused by short draw; 2 - Blood greater than 2 hrs at Room Temp or 6 hrs in refrigorator temp; 3 - Vibrations or inclined tube; 4 - Blood not at RT (refrigorator blood too thick)
What is a reticulocyte? Younger RBC (Has no Nucleus, stains blue gray, larger than an older cell
Define polychromasia - Blue gray cells (Young RBC)
These questions come from: Blood composition & WBC Count Worksheet
What are the three components of the cellular portion of the blood? 1 - Erythrocytes (RBC); 2 - Leukocytes (WBC) 3 - Thrombocytes (Platlets)
What anticoagulant is in a lavender tube? EDTA
What test is a lavender tube commonly used for? Complete CBC
What anticoagulant is in a gold tube? None (Contains Clot activators and/or serum gel separators)
What test is a gold tube used for? Chemistry
What anticoagulant is in a blue tube? Sodium citrate
What tests are a blue tube used for? PT, - PTT; - Coagulation
What anticoagulant is in a green tube? Heprin
What test is a green tube used for? Chemical determination on plasma
What anticoagulant is in a red tube? None (Contains Clot activators and/or serum gel separators)
What must you remember when drawing for a coagulation study? 1 - Use a blue tube; 2 - Draw a waste tube; 3 - Do not use tubes with clot activator for waste tube)
What are the different ways that 7,400 wbc/mm^3 can be expressed? 1 - 7,400 wbc/cu.mm.; 2 - 7.4 x 10^3 WBC/uL; 3 - 7.4 x 10^9 WBC/L
What are the different ways that 23,500 WBC/mm^3 can be expressed? 1 - 23,500 wbc/cu.mm.; 2 - 23.5 x 10^3 wbc/uL; 3 - 23.5 x 10^9 wbc/L
How is the operation of automated cell counters classied by CLIA? Moderately Complex
What tests make up a complete CBC? 1 - Erythrocyte; 2 - Leukocyte; 3 - Thrombocyte (Platelets- 1st step of clotting) 3 - Hematocrit (Packed red cell volume); 4 - Hemoglobin (Protein w/in RBC) 5 - Differential exam of WBC; 5 - Calculation of RBC indices, MCV, MCH, MCHC
The following questions are from: Hematology WBC Worksheet
What is the function of the nucleaus? Control center of the cell
What is the function of cytoplasm? All Protoplasm exempt for nucleus
What is the function of Chromatin? Thread like appearance of the chromosomes when the cell is not dividing
What is the function of nucleoli? Direct cell production (Oval bodies within the nucleus)
What is the function of vacuole? Membrane enclosed fluid filled space
What is the function of plasma membrane? Regulate passage of material into & out of cell
What size drop od blood is used to make a differential blood smear? Match head
What are the charateristics of a good smear? 1 - Gradual transition from thick to thin; 2 - Cover 2/3 - 2/4 of slide; 3 - Feathered end; 4 - No waves, clots or holes; 5 - Does not come to abrupt stop; 6 - Does not run off end
What causes a blood smear to be too thick? 1 - Angle of spreader too high (Above 45 degrees) 2 - Motion too fast; 3 - Drop too large
What causes a blood smear to be too thin? 1 - Angle too low (Less than 35 degrees) 2 - Motion too slow; 3 - Drop too small
What is the composition of Wright's differental stain? 1 - Alcohol solution; 2 - Acid dye (eosin red); 3 - Alkaline dye (Methylene blue)
What is accomplished in the 2 step staining procedure? 1 - Material is fixed to slide (Done by Wright's stain) 2 - Polychrome with addition of buffer
What is the function of the WBC Neutrophilic segmented? 1 - Phagocytosis (Eating) of bacteria & small particles
When are neutrophilic segmented cells increased? 1 - Pyogenic (pus) 2 - Pyrogenic (fever) 3 - Infection
What is the function of the WBC Eosinophilic Segmented cell? To limit the affects of an allergic reaction
When are Eosinophilic Segmented cells increased? Alergy & Parasitic infection (EX: Asthma, Hayfever, tapeworm)
What is the function of the WBC Basophilic segmented cell? Little is known; - Granules release hisomine & Heprin
When is basophilic segmented cells increased? Granulocytic leukemia; - Polycythemia vera; (Small role in allergy)
What is the function of the WBC Monocyte? Phagocytosis (Eating) of bacteria & large particles
When is monocyte cells increased? 1 - Cronic infection; 2 - TB
What is the function of the WBC Lymphocyte? Produce antibodies; - Transplant rejection
When is lymphocyte cells increased? Viral infections (EX: Mono, Viricoeula - Chicken pox)
Look at: # 18 concerning how figament is defined, what nucleus looks like and more.
What is the function of the WBC Lymphocyte? Produce antibodies; - Transplant rejection
When is lymphocyte cells increased? Viral infections (EX: Mono, Viricoeula - Chicken pox)
Look at: # 18 concerning how figament is defined, what nucleus looks like and more.So narrow there is no nuclear material between the two margins
What color is the cytoplasm in a neutrophilic band or segmented cell? Pink with small pink-brown granules (Both are the same)
What does the nucleus look like in a neutrophilic band cell? 'C', 'S' or 'U' shaped; conecting strip wide enough to show nuclear material between margins
What do the granules in the cytoplasm look like in eosinophilic segmented cell? Bright pink-red or red-organs spherical granules fill the cell - uniform size
What do the granules in the cytoplasm look like in basophilic segmented cell Large purple-black or blue-black irregular granules-vary in size, shape and number (Buck-shot)
What does the nucleus look like in a lymphocyte? Dense and round
What size can lymphocytes come in? Small, medium & large
What color is the cytoplasm of a lymphocyte? Robins egg blue (No granules)
What different shapes of lymphocyte are there? Small, narrow rim of cyto - bearly visable; Large with few reddish granules; - can look like a spindal; - Can look holly shaped and be easly indented
***** Next questions come from - RBC & Hemoglobin worksheet
What is the function of hemoglobin? 1 - Carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissue; 2 - Carries 25% of the carbin dioxcide carried from tissue to lungs
What are the abbreviation for hemoglobin? Hgb, Hb, hg
What makes heme? Starts out with iron & protoporphyrin (4% of molecule)
What makes globin? Amino acids & RNA (Ribonucleic acid) (96% of molecule)
What is hemoglobin? RBC protein
What does RA tell? Which aa assemble in what order
What are the three normal genetic types of hemoglobin? A1 - A2 - F
What is electrophoresis? Seperates ___________________ types of hemaglobin; all are hereditary; - All differ in the structure of the polypeptide
What are the physiologic factors that affect the RBC count and hemoglobin value? 1 - Age; 2 - Gender; 3 - Altitude; 4 - Body fluid
How is the RBC count and hemoglobin value affected by a person with dehydration Increase
How is the RBC count and hemoglobin value affected by a women that is pregnant? Decrease
Which diseases cause an increase in Hgb? 1 - Polcythemia vera; 2 - Burn pt; 3 - COPD
What unit is used to report a Hgb result? g/dL
Created by: amandmc