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chapt12industry+serv

ap human geography vocab flash cards

QuestionAnswer
Industrial Revolution the term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in late-18th century europe
location theory a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von Thunen model is a leading example
variable costs costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g. energy supply and labor costs)
friction of distance the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
distance decay the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
least cost theory model developed by alfred weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of 3 critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
agglomeration a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. the term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled labor pools and technological and financial amenities
deglomeration the process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competitionas much as possible which will therefore lead them to locatseek to constrain each other's territorye adjacent t
locational interdependence theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales,will
primary industrial regions western and central europe; eastern north america, russia and ukraine, and eastern asia, each of which consists of 1 or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary clusters
break-of-bulk point a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from 1 carrier to another. in a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution
Fordist a highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor. named after automobile producer Henry Ford, fordist production features assembly -line production of standardized components for mass consumption
post-Fordist world economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multi-national companies that shift production,
just-in-time delivery method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production will arrive when needed
global division of labor phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by the compression of time and space thru innovation in communication and transportation system
intermodal connections places where 2 or more modes of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship
deindustrialization process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
post-Fordist world economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multi-national companies that shift production,
just-in-time delivery method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production will arrive when needed
global division of labor phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by the compression of time and space thru innovation in communication and transportation system
intermodal connections places where 2 or more modes of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship
deindustrialization process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
outsource with reference tor production, to turn over in part of in total to a third party
offshore with reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country
Sunbelt the South and southwest regions of the united states
technopole centers or nodes of high technology research and activity around which a high technology corridor is sometimes established
Created by: sgklem