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ch 19 med term

med term

growth spurts occur throughout childhood, alternating with periods of slow growth
simple to complex language, for example develops from simple to complex
general to specific activities move from being generalized toward being more focused.for ex.the child will use the whole hand before picking up a small object between the thumb and forefinger
proximodistal growth & development proceeds from the center outward or from the mildline to the periphery
cephalocaudal growth & development proceeds from head to toe
febrile pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature, such as a febrile reaction to an infectious agent
development an increase in function and complexity that results through learning, maturation and growth
dentition the eruption of teeth.this occurs in a sequential pattern, with 20 primary teeth erupting between the ages of 6 to 30 months
deciduous teeth baby teeth; the first set of teeth also known as primary teeth
cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin & mucous membranes caused by an excess of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule
crackles a common abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation of the chest during inspiration,characterized by discontinuous bubbling noises
congenital present at birth
axillary temperature the body temperature as recorded by a thermometer placed in the armpit. the reading is generally 0.5 to 1.0 degree less than the oral temperature
immunization a process buy which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented
immunity the quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition
hydrocephalus a pathological condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, usually under increased pressure within the cranial vault & subsequent dilation of the ventricles; hydrocephaly
head circumference the measurement around the greatest circumference of the head of an infant.this measurement is plotted according to normal growth & development patterns for the infant's head.
grunting abnormal, short audible deep, hoarse sounds in exhalation that often accompany sever chest pain
growth an increase in the whole or any of its parts physically
friction rub a dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope during auscultation
apnea an absence of spontaneous respiration
apical pulse the heart rate as heard with a stethoscope placed on the chest wall adjacent to the cardiac apex(top of the heart)
active acquired immunity a form of long-term acquired immunity that protects the body against a new infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination
infant a child who is in the earliest stage of extrauterine life,a time extending from the first month after birth to approximately 12 months of age-when the baby is able to assume an erect posture
length (recumbent) the measurement of the distance from the crown of the infant's head to the infant's heel, while the infant is lying on the back with legs extended
lumbar puncture the introduction of a hollow needle & stylet into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar portion of the spinal canal to obtain specimens of cerebrospinal fluid
microcephalus a congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body & by underdevelopment of the brain, resulting in some degree of mental retardation
natural immunity a usually innate and permanent form of immunity to a specific disease
neonatologist a medical doctor who specializes in neonatology
neonatology the medical specialty concerned with the diseases and abnormalities of the newborn infant
prodromal pertaining to early signs or symptoms that mark the onset of a disease
primary teeth baby teeth; the first set of teeth;also known as deciduous teeth
pediatrics pertaining to preventive and primary health care and treatment of children and the study of childhood diseases
pediatric nurse practitioner a registered nurse with advanced study and clinical practice in pediatric nursing
pediatrician a physician who specializes in pediatrics
passive acquired immunity a form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to a fetus,through the colostrum to an infant,artificially by injection of antiserum for treatment or as a prophylaxis
oral temperature the mean body temperature of a normal person as recorded by a clinical thermometer placed in the mouth
omphalorrhea drainage from the umbilicus (navel)
omphalocele congenital herniation of intra-abdominal viscera through a defect in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus
omphalitis an inflammation of the umbilical stump,marked by redness, swelling, and purulent exudate in severe cases
nomogram a graphic representation by any of various systems, of a numeric relationship
wheezing a breath sound, characterized by a high-pitched musical quality heard on both inspiration & expiration.may be associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis as well as other illnesses
well-child visit routine health visit in which health professionals assess the current health status of the child, the progression of growth & development and the need for immunizations
vertex the top of the head; crown
vaccine a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms administered intradermally, intramucualy, orally or subcutaneously to induce active immunity to infectious disease
tympanic temperature the body temperature as measured electronically at the tympanic membrane
toxoid a toxin that has been treated with chemicals or with heat to decrease its toxic effect but that retains its ability to cause the production of antibodies
stridor an abnormal, high-pitched, musical sound caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx
stature natural height of a person in an upright position
retraction the displacement of tissues to expose a part or structure of the body;retractions may be seen around the ribs in a child or infant with respiratory distress
recumbent lying down
rectal temperature temperature as measured in the rectum
pyrexia fever
erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) a viral disease characterized by a face that appears as "slapped cheeks", a fiery red rash on the cheeks
diphteria serious infectious disease affecting the nose,pharynx,or larynx usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia and fever.disease caused by the bacterium-Corynebacterium diphtheriae,which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies
chickenpox (varicella) a viral disease of sudden onset with slight fever, successive eruptions of macules,papules and vesicles on the skin-followed by crusting over of the lesions with a granular scab.itching may be severe.
pertussis (whooping cough) an acute upper respiratory infectious disese cause by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis
rubeola ("red measles", 7 day measles) acute, highly communicable viral disease that begins as an upper respiratory disorder with fever,cough,runny nose,sensitivity to light,and possible conjunctivitis
rubella (German measles; 3 day measles) a mild febrile(fever causing)infectious disease resembling both scarlet fever & measles, but differing from these in its short course;characterized by a rash of both macules & papules that fades & disappears in 3 days
mumps (infectious parotitis) acute viral disease characterized by fever,swelling,and tenderness of one or more salivary glands-usually the parotid glands(below and in front of the ears)
impetigo contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles & pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria, usually forming on the face
roseola infantum a viral disease with a sudden onset of a high fever for 3 to 4 days,during which time the child may experience mild coldlike symptoms and slight irritability.febrile seizures may occur
cryptorchidism condition of undescended testicles;the absence of one or both testicles from the scrotum
croup a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough,stridor(high pitched musical sound when breathing in) and laryngeal spasm
asthma paroxysmal dyspnea(sever attack of difficult breathing),accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane
scarlet fever (scarlatina) an acute,contagious disease characterized by sore throat,abrupt high fever,increased pulse,strawberry tongue(red and swollen), & punctiform(pointlike)bright red rash on the body
coarctation of the aorta a congential heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta,which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities(area proximal to the defect) & decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities(area distal to the defect)
cleft lip and palate congenital defect in which there is an open space between the nasal cavity & the lip,due to failure of the soft tissue & bones in this area to fuse properly during embryologic development
Created by: Courtne