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Digestive System *

Chapter 9

The digestive system is composed of: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, appendix, liver, gallbladder, small intestine (including duodenum), large intestine (including colon), anus
functions of digestive system are to ingest food, prepare food for use by the body, excrete body wastes
alimentary tract route food takes as it passes from the mouth to the anus
enzymes digestive secretions - changes food chemically
duodenum (first loop of the small intestine) where most of the digested food particles are absorbed. Food from the stomach mixes with digestive secretions from the duodenum, pancreas, and liver to complete the process of digestion
bile made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder. Breaks down fat
vili small fingerlike projections of the duodenum that absorb digested food particles and release them into the bloodstream (the duodenum is composed of thousands of vili)
peristalsis rhythmic contractions which move digested food through the large intestine
appendix has no digestive function, located where the large and small intestine meet
sigmoid colon lower portion of the large intestine curves in an 'S' shape. Leads directly into the rectum.
rectum lowest section of the large intestine adjacent to the outside of the body
sphincter muscles (muscle that squeeze down) muscle that contracts to close a body opening
liver largest gland of the body.
function of the liver store glucose. This sugar is stored and released in the large amounts when the cells need it. Store vitamins and proteins, removal poision/toxins from blood, carry out metabolic functions important for blood clotting
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease. Backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus, producing buring pain
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
aspiration inhaling food or fluids into the lungs
ulcer ( a cavity) open wound
gastritis inflammation of the stomach caused by bacteria, viruses, vitamin deficiency, excessive eating, overindulgence in alcohol
gallstones cholesterol crystals that settle out of bile stored in the gallbladder
hemorrhoids enlarged blood-filled vessels that surround the area of the rectum
cirrhosis inflammation of the liver
nutrition science of foods and their actions or relationship to health
Calories in a normal diet 58% of Carbo, 12% of proteins, 30% of fatty acids
age-related changes that affect elders' stat nutritional status require fewer calories, require more vitam. and minerals, take more drugs, diminished sense of taste,
Taosim belief that harmony is maintained through ying and yang.
What should you do when a resident is avoiding a particular food and wishes to have an alternative? notify the licensed nurse and/or food service supervisor
What is the most accurate way to chart intake? observe the resident's tray after eating and chart exactly what was eaten. (ex: Mr. Jones ate all the ham, half the potato, half of the vegetables, etc.)
What should you do any time resident refuse a meal or their eating habits change? report to the charge nurse, never ignore poor intake
therapeutic effective in the treatment of disease
What is the purpose of a therapeutic diet? to help in the medical treatment of a particular disease or illness
hypertension high blood pressure
What diet will a person with hypertension or heart disease be on? a salt free or salt restricted diet
nasogastric tube tube inserted through the nose and into the stomach.
gastrostomy tube tube inserted directly into the stomach. For resident who cannot swallow
parenterally through a tube inserted into a vein or into the atrium of the heart
What should you do if a resident cheat on their diets, or family members bringing in forbidden foods? report any failures to follow the prescribed diet to your charge nurse
aspirate take into the lungs
What is on the diet card? name of the resident, the diet order, special instructions, allergies
Should you feed a resident who is unable to chew or swallow? No, report to the charge nurse at once
defecation process of eliminating poop
What does waste consist of? 30% dead bacteria and 70% undigested roughage from food
Report and chart the following changes in stool color, presence of blood, large amount of undigested foods or mucus, parasites (worms), change in bowel habits, complains of pain, constipation or diarrhea, uncharacteristic odors
constipation buildup of fecal material in the large intestine, not easily passed through the rectum
laxative medication that loosens the bowel content and encourage pooping
suppository a cone-shaped semisolid medicated substance that contains glycerin. Inserted it into the rectum
enema introduction of fluid into the rectum and colon. Stimulate the bowel and cause the poop to be released
Types of enema tap water, commercially prepared (fleet, oil retention), saline (salt solution), SSE (soap suds enema)
enemas until clear no soild fecal material present when the solution is expelled
ostomy sugrical opening made on the surface of the abdomen to release waste from the body
stoma an opening
colostomy opening into the colon
ileostomy opening into the ileum
ureterostomy opening into one of the ureters
When providing care to resident with an ostomy do 3 things: 1)protect the skin around the stoma from breakdown or irritation 2)assist in reducing odors 3)observe and see if ostomy is functioning properly
What attitude is the best way to deal with embarrassing situtations? a matter-of-fact attitude
Created by: Tiffastic