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Female Repro Physio

Female Reproductive Physiology

Estrogen hormone that stimulates female secondary sex characteristics; female sex hormones
Effects of estrogen 1)stimulates development and maintenance of reproduction structures 2) stimulates development of secondary female sexual characteristics(body shape, more fat, less muscle, body hair patterns, voice pitch) 3)helps control fluid and electrolyte balance, 4)i
Progesterone the other major ovarian steroid hormone that is synthesized and released in very small amounts by the granulosa and theca cells just before ovulation. The major source of progesterone is the corpus luteum.
Effects of Progesterone 1)works with estrogens to prepare the uterine lining for implantation by causing the endometrium to thicken and become secretory and vascular, 2)inhibits myometrial contractions so that fertilized egg can implant in uterine wall and to quiescence uterus d
Inhibin a protein hormone that inhibits FSH secretion. It is secreted by both the granulosa cells and the corpus luteum
Birth control pills Keeping estrogens and progesterone levels high enough during the month should avoid pregnancy. These high levels can inhibit the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary, thereby inhibits oocyte egg production.
Oogonia/Primary Oocytes analogous to the spermatogonia in the male. During the 7th month after conception, the fetal oogonia cease dividing and no more are produced. Still in the fetus, all the oogonia develop into primary oocytes (analogous to male spermatocytes), which then
Ovarian follicles many saclike structures that are embedded in the highly vascular connective tissue of the ovary cortex. Each follicle consists of an immature egg, called an oocyte, surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells.
Follicle stages follicles are in different stages of maturation and are distinguished by their structure. Follicle cells have one layer, granulosa cells have more than one layer
Primordial follicle contain a primary oocyte surrounded by flattened cells
Primary follicle developed from a primordial follicle, contains a primary oocyte surrounded by cuboidal follicle cells
Growing primary follicle secretes estrogen as it continues to mature and contains granulosa cells and theca cells
Secondary follicle is characterized by a clear liquid that accumulates between the granulosa cells and forms the fluid-filled cavity called the antrum. A final event of follicle maturation is that the primary oocyte completes meiosis I, producing the secondary oocyte (and
Graafian follicle when the mature secondary follicle is at its most mature stage LH will stimulate the Graafian follicle to bulges from the surface of the ovary and burst open, releasing the secondary oocyte.
Theca cells synthesize androgens which diffuse into granulosa cells (within the ovarian follicle). LH stimulates theca cells to proliferate and synthesize androgens.
Granulosa cells are connected to the developing oocyte by gap junctions, through which ions, metabolites and signaling molecules can pass – these cells “tell” the oocyte to grow
Granulosa cells function convert androgens (from theca cells) to estrogen by aromatase (within the ovarian follicle) which allows for estrogen synthesis during the early and middle follicular phases. Granulosa cells help form the zona pellucida. FSH stimulates granulosa cells to
Zona pellucida formed as the granulosa cells secrete a glycoprotein-rich substance that form this thick transparent membrane around the oocyte
Functions of granulosa cells 1)nourish oocyte, 2)secrete chemical messengers that influence the oocyte and the theca cells, 3) secrete antral fluid, 4) express aromatase, which converts androgen (from theca cells) to estrogen, 5) secrete inhibin, which inhibits FSH secretion from pit
Late follicular phase the dominant follicle secretes large amounts of estrogen, which acts on the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus to cause the LH surge.
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males
LH luteinizing hormone produced in the anterior pituitary that aids maturation of cells in the ovary and triggers ovulation (in males LH causes the interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone)
LH surge when the ovary secretes enough estrogen this leads to the LH surge which causes the Graafian follicle to rupture, releasing the secondary oocyte (the mature follicle). The LH surge happens about 18 hours before ovulation.
Uterine phases 1)menstrual from days 1-5, 2)Proliferative from days 6-14, 3) secretory from days 15-28
Menstrual phase occurs when the plasma estrogen and progesterone levels decrease as a result of the degeneration of the corpus luteum which results in the sloughing of the uterine lining
Proliferative phase the period of growth that lasts for about 10 days between cessation of menstruation and ovulation; estrogen stimulates growth of the endometrium and myometrium and causes the cervical mucus to be readily penetrable by sperm
Secretory phase occurs after ovulation and before the onset of menstruation; progesterone converts the endometrium to a secretory tissue and inhibits uterine contractions
Menstrual/Uterine cycle is divided into follicular phase and a luteal phase, each lasting approximately 14 days and are separated by ovulation
Follicular phase secondary follicle develops and is then released from the Graffian follicle
Luteal phase lasts from after ovulation until the death of the corpus luteum
Ovulation occurs when the ovary wall ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte into the peritoneal cavity at about day 14 in response to a sudden release of LH from the anterior pituitary
Mittelschmerz the pain caused by the intense stretching of the ovarian wall during ovulation
Corpus hemorrhagicum what remains of the Graafian follicle after ovulation, which then develops into a corpus luteum under the influence of LH
Corpus luteum the remains of corpus hemorrhagicum, secretes large amounts of progesterone and estrogen as well as the hormone inhibin.
Corpus luteum lifespan it degenerates within two weeks if pregnancy does not occur; if pregnancy does occur, the developing placenta begins to secrete hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) the hormone that will maintain the corpus luteum for the first 3-4 months of pregnancy.
Corpus albicans the remains of the corpus luteum. When fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum degenerates to become a corpus albicans which results in a drop of estrogen and a drop of progesterone level.
Menstruation a sloughing of the uterine lining; it is the result of low estrogen and low progesterone levels
Menstrual cycle phases 1) follicular phase, during which a single mature follicle and secondary oocyte develop and 2) the luteal phase, beginning after ovulation and lasting until the death of the corpus luteum
Milk production controlled by estrogens, progesterone, prolactin and placental lactogen
Milk ejection controlled by oxytocin
Colostrum milk produced 24-48 hours after delivery which is rich in protein. It contains four major nutrients: water, protein, fat and the carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar).
Hormones produced by placenta hCG, relaxin, human placental lactagon, estrogen, progesterone
Parasympathetic activation engorgement of the erectile tissues of the clitoris and increase secretion of the greater vestibular glands involves this neural activity
The process of oogenesis produces 3 nonfunctional polar bodies that eventually disintegrate and form – 1 functional ovum
Amenorrhea absence of menstruation. During pregnancy results from high levels of estrogen, progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin.
Dysmenorrhea menstrual cramps, caused by an overproduction of prostaglandins which leads to excessive uterine contractions
Adrenarche changes that occur at puberty as a result of increased secretion of adrenocortical hormones.
Menarche the initial menstrual period, normally occurring between the 9th and 17th year.
Created by: Dennis