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A&P: Repro

Reproductive System

QuestionAnswer
Superficial fascia layer of the testes. dartos fascia
A layer of the pelvis separating deep perineal sac from the upper pelvis. Contains voluntary sphincter muscle. urogenital diaphragm
The serous sheath of the testis and epididymis, derived from the peritoneum, and consisting of an outer and inner serous layer. tunica vaginalis
Attaches the developing testes to the posterior wall (inferior pocket) of the peritoneum. gubernaculum
During the 7 months of development circulating hormones cause the gubernaculum to ________. contract
The main duct through which semen is carried from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. ductus deferens
The spermatic cord begins at the ______, extends along the _______, exits at the ________ and descends into the _______. The spermatic cord begins at the deep inguinal ring, extends along the inguinal canal, exits at the superficial inguinal ring and descends into the scrotum.
A plexus that is formed, in the male, by veins from the testicle and the epididymis, lies in front of the vas deferens, and forms part of the spermatic cord; in the female, the plexus is formed by the ovarian veins between the layers of the broad ligament pampiniform plexus
An artery with origin in the aorta, with branches to the ureteral, cremasteric, and epididymal arteries, with distribution to the testicle, and with anastomoses to the branches of the renal, inferior epigastric, and deferential arteries. testicular artery
Surgical correction of an inguinal hernia. herniorrhaphy
This occurs when a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal. inguinal hernia
An indirect inguinal hernia protrudes through the__________. An indirect inguinal hernia protrudes through the inguinal ring.
A direct inguinal hernia protrudes through a weakened area in the transversalis fascia within ________. A direct herniation occurs within Hesselbach's Triangle.
This structure is the beginning of the inguinal canal. the internal ring
The condition known as having undescended testes. cryptorchidism
Plastic surgery of the testis. orchioplasty (or "orchidoplasty" according to Ms. P.)
Surgical freeing of an undescended testicle with implantation into the scrotum. orchiopexy
The central anteroposterior line of the perineum, most marked in the male, being continuous with the raphe of the scrotum. perineal raphe
A pathological accumulation of serous fluid in a bodily cavity, especially in the scrotal pouch. hydrocele
The ejaculatory duct is located in the _____. prostate
Dense connective tissue beneath the visceral tunica vaginalis which forms septa or partitions between lobules of the testes. tunica albuginea
Four basic cell types involved in spermatogenesis. 1) stem cell/spermatogonium, 2) dividing spermatocytes, 3)spermatids, and 4) sustentacular/sertoli cells.
Sperm are stored and mature in the ____________. tail of the epididymis
Spermatogonia (and their immediate progeny) divide by _______. One of the daughter groups, the primary spermatocytes, then begins the process of _______. Spermatogonia (and their immediate progeny) divide by mitosis. One of the daughter groups, the primary spermatocytes, then begins the process of meiosis.
Hormone created by the interstitial cells in the seminiferous tubules. Androgen Binding Protein
What is MIF a.k.a. AMH? Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)/Müllerian inhibiting factor (MIF) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo.
Cuboidal cells that are responsible for androgen production under the direction of GnRH from the hypothalamus and LH from the anterior pituitary. leydig cells, a.k.a. "interstitial cells" or "Sertoli Cells"
Either of two embryonic tubes extending along the mesonephros that become the uterine tubes, uterus, and part of the vagina in the female and that form the prostatic utricle in the male. müllerian duct
The process by which mature sperm are released from the interstitial cell into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. spermiation
From the epididymis, the sperm travel through the _____________. vas (ductus) deferens
As the vas joins with duct openings from accessory glands, the tube expands to form the _________. The ________ continues as the urethra. As the vas joins with duct openings from accessory glands, the tube expands to form the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct continues as the urethra.
Either of two small glands that are located below the prostate and discharge a component of the seminal fluid into the urethra. Cowper's glands a.k.a. bulbourethral gland
Process of making the sperm capable of penetrating the ovum. (takes 1-10 hours) capacitation
Process by which stem cells (spermatogonium) produce two daughter cells that differentiate into spermatocytes. mitosis
Special form of cell division (reduction-division) which produces gametes. meiosis
Process by which the spermatic cord that provides the blood supply to a testicle is twisted, cutting off the blood supply. testicular torsion
An anastomosing network of delicate tubules located in the hilum of the testicle that carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vasa efferentia. rete testis
A nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland commonly occurring in men after the age of 50, and sometimes leading to compression of the urethra and obstruction of the flow of urine. (BPH) benign prostatic hypertrophy
Semen, a slightly alkaline secretion, contains which three substances? 1)high concentration of fructose, 2)prostaglandins, and 3)fibrinogen.
Secretions of semen components are discharged into the ampulla of the _______ at emission by _______ under the control of the ________ nervous system. Secretions of semen components are discharged into the ampulla of the ampulla of the ductus deferens at emission by peristalsis under the control of the sympathetic nervous system.
Either of a pair of pouchlike glands situated on each side of the male urinary bladder that secrete seminal fluid and nourish and promote the movement of spermatozoa through the urethra. seminal vesicles
The prostate gland produces prostatic fluid which is slightly _______, and contributes __-__% of semen volume. This fluid contains an antibiotic called _______. The prostate gland produces prostatic fluid which is slightly acidic, and contributes 20-30% of semen volume. This fluid contains an antibiotic called seminalplasmin.
The removal of significant amounts of prostate tissue (as in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia). transurethral resection of the prostate
A recently approved technique which can be done with a local anesthetic on an outpatient basis, and uses radio frequency energy delivered through needles to kill excess prostate tissue. (heat induced). Improves urine flow. Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA)
The male urethra is divided into which 3 parts? Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and penile urethra
Serum levels of ______ are elevated in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and are used as a screening test for prostate cancer. The highest normal level is 4 ng/mL. PSA / prostate-specific antigen
A typical ejaculation contains __-__ ml of semen (ejaculate). This contains _____ per mL of spermatozoa. A typical ejaculation contains 2-5 ml of semen (ejaculate). This contains 20-100 million per mL of spermatozoa.
Protease helps to destroy _______. the mucus secretions of the vagina.
Sperm count should be at least ________ in an ejaculate. 60 million
At least __% of sperm should be actively moving and of normal morphology. 60%
Semen is a thick gel at the time of ejaculation and normally becomes liquid within 20 minutes after ejaculation. ____ time is a measure of the time it takes for the semen to liquefy. liquifaction time
For semen analysis, a sample is taken after a __-hour period of sexual abstinence. 36-hour
Most of the penis is supplied by which arteries? the internal pudendal artery, the two dorsal arteries and the bulbourethral artery
One of the superficial muscles of the perineum. In males, it covers the bulb of the penis. In females, it covers the vestibular bulb. bulbospongiosus muscle
Two cylindrical anterior areas, bound by ligaments (crus) to ischium and pubis. corpora cavernosa
Slender erectile body that extends from the superficial fascia of urogenital diaphragm to tip of the penis. corpus spongiosum
Created by: jimyanke