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Med Term Chapter 8

definitions.

QuestionAnswer
an/o anus
cec/o cecum
chol/e bile, gall
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestin
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach, belly
hepat/o liver
cholecyst/o gallbladder
-lithiasis presence of stones
pancreat/o pancreas
-pepsia digest, digestion
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum, straght
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
alimentary canal The disgestive system. Responsible for: The intake and digestion of food. The absorption of nutrients from digested food. The elimination of solid waste products. (aliment means to nourish, ary is pertaining to)
Major Structures of the Digestive System: Oral cavity (mouth), Pharynx (throat), Espohpagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, and the Rectum and Anus.
Accessory Organs related to the Digestive System: Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas.
gastrointestinal (GI tract) The structures of the digestive system.
upper GI tract contains mouth, esophagus, and stomach.
lower GI tract made up of the small intestine, large intestines, recutm, and anus. (intestines also known as bowels)
Major structures of the oral cavity: lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium.
lips (labia) Forms the opening to the oral cavity. (Labia are also part of the female genitalia) Cheil/o.
palate Forms the roof of the mouth and consists of two parts.
hard palate forms the bony anterior portion of the palate which is covered with a specialized mucous membrane.
rugae Irregular ridges or folds in the mucous membrane, cover the anterior portion of the hard palate. Also found in the stomach.
soft palate Forms the flexible posterior portion of the palate. Has the important rold of closing off the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not move upward into the nasal cavity.
uvula Hangs from the free edge of the soft palate, helps in producing sound and speech.
tongue Very strong and flexible, aids in speech and moves abd moves during chewing and swallowing. The upper surface has a tough protective covering. The underside is highly vascular and covered with delicate tissue
papillae Taste buds.
highly vascular Containing many blood vessels.
dentition Natural teeth arranged in the maxillary(upper) and mandibular(lower) arches.
endentulous Without teeth. This term is used after the natural teeth have been lost.
incisors and canines(cuspids) Teeth used for biting and tearing.
premolars(biscupids) and molars Teeth used for chewing and grinding.
primary dentition (deciduous
an/o anus
cec/o cecum
chol/e bile, gall
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestin
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach, belly
hepat/o liver
cholecyst/o gallbladder
-lithiasis presence of stones
pancreat/o pancreas
-pepsia digest, digestion
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum, straght
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
alimentary canal The disgestive system. Responsible for: The intake and digestion of food. The absorption of nutrients from digested food. The elimination of solid waste products. (aliment means to nourish, ary is pertaining to)
Major Structures of the Digestive System: Oral cavity (mouth), Pharynx (throat), Espohpagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, and the Rectum and Anus.
Accessory Organs related to the Digestive System: Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas.
gastrointestinal (GI tract) The structures of the digestive system.
upper GI tract contains mouth, esophagus, and stomach.
lower GI tract made up of the small intestine, large intestines, recutm, and anus. (intestines also known as bowels)
Major structures of the oral cavity: lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium.
lips (labia) Forms the opening to the oral cavity. (Labia are also part of the female genitalia) Cheil/o.
palate Forms the roof of the mouth and consists of two parts.
hard palate forms the bony anterior portion of the palate which is covered with a specialized mucous membrane.
rugae Irregular ridges or folds in the mucous membrane, cover the anterior portion of the hard palate. Also found in the stomach.
soft palate Forms the flexible posterior portion of the palate. Has the important rold of closing off the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not move upward into the nasal cavity.
uvula Hangs from the free edge of the soft palate, helps in producing sound and speech.
tongue Very strong and flexible, aids in speech and moves abd moves during chewing and swallowing. The upper surface has a tough protective covering. The underside is highly vascular and covered with delicate tissue
papillae Taste buds.
highly vascular Containing many blood vessels.
dentition Natural teeth arranged in the maxillary(upper) and mandibular(lower) arches.
endentulous Without teeth. This term is used after the natural teeth have been lost.
incisors and canines(cuspids) Teeth used for biting and tearing.
premolars(biscupids) and molars Teeth used for chewing and grinding.
primary dentition(decidous dentition) Baby teeth that consists of 20 teeth.
permanent dentition Consists of 32 teeth and designed to last a life time. (8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars and no premolars)
occlusion Any contact between the chewing surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth.
malocclusion Any deviation from a normal occlusion.
crown Portion of the tooth that is visible in the mouth. Meets at the neck of the tooth.
enamel Strongest tissue in the body.
root Part of the tooth that holds the tooth securely in place within the dental arch. Protected by cementum. Meets at the neck of the tooth.
dentin The bulk of the tooth and is protected by the enamel and cementum.
pulp chamber Inner area of the crown of the tooth that runs downward to form the root canals. Made up of a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves.
peridontium Consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth. (peri means surrounding, odonti means the teeth and um is the noun ending)
gingiva(gums) The specialized mucous membrance that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and continues to form the lining of the cheeks.
salivary glands Secrete saliva that moistens food, begins the digestive process, and cleanses the mouth.
parotid glands Salivary glands located on the face in front of and slightly lower than each ear.
sublingual glands Salivary glands located on the underside of the tongue.
submandibular glands Salivary glands located on the floor of the mouth.
pharynx(throat) Common passageway for both repiration and digestion.
epiglottis Prevents food from moving from the pharynx to the into the lungs when swallowing by closing off the entrance to the trachea(windpipe). This allows food to move safely into the esophagus.
esophagus(gullet) A collapsible tube that leads from the pharynx to the stomach.
lower esophageal sphincter(cardiac sphincter) A ringlike muscle that controls the flow between the esophagus and the stomach. When this functions normally, stomac contents do not flow back into the esophagus.
somach Saclike organ composed of the fundus(upper, rounded part), body(main portion), and antrum(lower part).
rugae Folds in the mucousa lining the stomach. Glands located within thes folds produce the gastric juices that aid in digestion and mucus that forms the protective coating of lining in the stomach.
pylorus The narrow passageway connecting the stomach with the small intestine.
pyloric sphincter The muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine.
small intestine Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. It is here that the nutrients from food are absorves into the blood stream. It is a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length; it is smaller in diameter than the large intestine.
duodenum The first portion of the small intestine, extends from the pylorus to the jejunum.
jejunum The middle portion of the small intestine, extends from the duodenum to the ileum.
ileum Last portion of the small intestine, extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine.
ileocecal sphincter Controls the flow of the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine.
large intestine Extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. The waste product of digestion are processed here and then excreted through the anus.
cecum A pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen. It extends from the ileum to the beginning of the colon.
vermiform appendix(appendix) Hangs from the lower portion of the cecum. Serves no known function in the digestive system.
ascending colon Travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver.
transverse colon Passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen.
descending colon Travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon.
sigmoid colon An S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below.
rectum Last division of the large intestine, ends at the anus.
anus The lower opening of the digestive track.
liver Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and has several important functions. It removes excess glucose from the blood stream and stores it as glycogen. This destroys old erythrocytes, removes posion from the blood & manufactures blood proteins.
hepatic Pertaining to the liver.
glucose Blood sugar. When the blood sugar level is low, the liver coverts glycogen back into this and releases it for use by the body.
glycogen A form of starch.
bilirubin A pigment produces from the destruction of hemoglobin. It is released by the liver in bile. Too much of this in the blood is associated with jaundice.
bile A digestive juice containing enzymes that break down fat secreted by the liver. This also travels down the common hepatic duct to the cystic duct that leads to the gallbladder where it is stored.
biliary Pertaining to bile.
gallbladder A pear-shaped sac located under the liver. It stores & concentrates the bile for later use. When bile is needed, this contracts, forcing the bile out through the cystic duct & into the common bile duct & carries it into the duodenum of the small intestine
cholecystic Pertaining to the gallbladder.
pancreas A feather-shaped organ located posterior to the stomach. It has important roles in both the digestive system and endocrine systems.
pancreatic juices These juices are synthesized and secreted by the pancreas & are made up of sodium biocarbonate (to help nutrilize stomach acids) & digestive enzymes (to process the protein, carbohydrates & fats in food).
digestion The process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use.
enzymes These are responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body.
nutrient A substance, usually from food, that is necessary for normal functioning of the body.
metabolism The sume of anabolism and catabolism. This term includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of these nutrients.
anabolism The building up of body cells and substances from nutrients.
catabolism The opposite of anabolism. The breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide.
absorption The process by which completely digested nutrients are taken into the circulatory system by passing through the capillaries located in the walls of the small intestine.
villi The tiny, hairlike projections that line the walls of the small intestine. Fats and soluable vitamins are absorbed in the lymphatic system through this.
mastication Chewing, Breaks down food into smaller pieces and mixes it with saliva. Saliva contains an enzyme that begins the chemical breakdown to convert starches into sugar.
peristalsis A series of wavelike contractions of the smoth muscles in a single direction. In the esophagus food moves downward through the action of gravity and this.
gastric juices Juices of the stomach and contain hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes. Few nutrietns enter the bloodstream through the walls of the stomach. The churning action of the stomach works with these juices to convert the food to chyme.
chyme The semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes from the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine.
emulsification The process of biles breaking apart large fat glocules into smaller particles so enzymes in pancreatic juices can digest the fats. This action must be completed before the nutrients can be absorbed into the body.
feces Stools, are solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus. Excess water is absorbed from the food waste through the walls of the large intestine and this is formed.
defecation Bowel movement, the evacutation or emptying of the large intestines.
flatulence/flatus The gas passed out through the body through the rectum that is frequently produced by the normal, friendly bacteria in the colon, which helps to further break down food.
borborygmus The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
dentist A doctor who holds a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry degree (DMD) and specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity.
gastroenterologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines.
internist Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs.
orthodontist A dental specialist in the prevention or correction of abnormalities in the positioning of the teeth and related facial structures.
periodontist A dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth.
proctologist Specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus.
aphthous ulcers Canker sores, are recurrent blister-like sores that break and form lesions on the soft tissues lining the mouth. Although the exact cause is known, the appearance of these sores is associated with stress, certain foods, or fever.
herpes libialia Cold sores or fever blisters, are blister-like sores caused by the herpes simplex virus that occur on lips and adjacent tissue.
cleft lip Harelip, is a congenital defect resulting in a deep fissure of the lip running upward to the nose.
cleft palate A congenital fissure of the palate that involves the upper lip, hard palate, and/or soft palate. If not corrected, this opening between the nose and mouth makes it difficult for the child to eat and speak.
bruxism Involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress. This disease wears away tooth structure, damages peridontal tissues, and injures the temporomandibular joint.
dental calculus Hardened dental plaque on the teeth that irritates the surrounding tissues.
calculus Describes hard deposits, commonly known as stones, formed in any part of the the body.
dental caries Tooth decay or a cavity, is an infectious disease that destroys the enamel and dentin of the tooth. If the decay process is not arrested, the pulp can be exposed and become infected.
dental plaque A soft deposit consisting of bacteria and bacterial by-products that builds up on the teeth and is a major cause of dental caries and periodontal disease.
plaque A patch or small differentiated area on a body surface or the buildup deposits of cholesterol in blood vessels.
periodontal disease/periodontitis An inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth. This is a progressive disease classified according to the degree of tissue involvement.
gingivitis An inflammation of the gums, is the earliest stage of periodontal disease.
halitosis Bad breath, may be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders.
temporomandibular disorders/TMD/myofascial pain dysfunction A group of complex symptoms including pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing that are related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint.
dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing.
esophageal reflux/gastroesophageal refulx disease/GERD The upward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus.
esophageal virus Enlarged or swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus. Severe bleeding occurs if one of these veins ruptures.
haital hernia A protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm. This condition may cause esophageal reflux and pyrosis.
pyrosis Heartburn, the burning sensation caused by the return of the acidic stomach contents into the esophagus.
gastritis An inflammation of the stomach.
gastroenteritis An inflammation of the stomach and intestines, especially the small intestine.
gastrorrhagia Bleeding from the stomach.
gastrorrhea The excessive flow of gastric secretions.
gastrorrhexis A rupture of the stomach.
peptic ulcer/PU A lesion of the mucous membranes of the digestive system, These that are frequently caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori may occur in the lower end of the esophagus, the stomach, or the duodenum.
gastric ulcers Peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach.
duodenal ulcers Peptic ulcers that occur in the upper part of the small intestine and are the most common form of peptic ulcer.
perforating ulcer Involves erosion through the entire thickness of the organ wall.
anorexia The lack or loss of apetite for food.
anorexia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight and an intense fear of gaining weight. Compulsive dieting and exercising often cause the patient to become emaciated.
emaciated Abnormally thin.
builimia/bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behavior such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications.
dehydration A condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance.
malnutrition A lack of proper food or nutrients in the body, either due to a shortage of food or the improper absorption or distribution of nutrients.
obesity An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
obese Refers to idividuals who are 20% to 30% over the established standards for height, age, sex, and weight.
pica An eating disorder in which there is persistent eating of nonnutritional substances such as clay. These abnormal cravings are sometimes associated with pregnancy.
achlorhydria The absence of hydrochloric acis from gastric secretions.
aerophagia The spasmodic swallowing of air followed by eructations.
eructation The act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.
dyspepsia Indigestion, An impairment of digestion.
emesis Vomiting, Expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth.
hematemesis Vomiting blood.
hyperemesis Excessive vomiting.
nausea Sensation that leads to the urge to vomit.
regurgitation The return of swallowed food into the mouth.
colorectal cancer A common form of cancer that often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon.
diverticulitis An inflammation of one or more diverticulum.
diverticulum A pouch or sac occuring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ including the intestines.
inflammatory bowel disease/IBD Chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
colitis An inflammation of the colon.
crohn's disease A chronic autoimmune disorder involving any part of the GI tract but most commonly resulting in scarring and thickening of the walls of ileum, colon or both.
enteritis An inflammation of the small intestines.
ileitis An inflammation of the ileum.
spastic colon Irritable bowel syndrome/IBS, A disorder of the motility of the entire GI tract. It is characterized by abdominal pain, nausea, gas, constipation, and/or diarrhea.
ileus A temporary stoppage of intestinal peristalsis that may be accompanied by severe pain, abdominal distention, vomiting, absence of passage of stools, fever, and dehydration.
intestinal adhesions Abnormally hold together parts of the intestine where they normally should be separate. This condition, which is cause by inflammation or trauma, can lead to intestinal obstruction.
internal obstruction A complete stoppage or serious impairment to the passage of the intestinal contents. A mechanical obstruction may result from a blockage that may be due to many causes including the presence of a tumor.
strangling obstruction The blood flow to a segment of the intestine is cut off. This may lead to gangrene and perforation.
volvulus Twisting of the intestine (bowel) on itself that causes an obstruction.
intussusception The telescoping of one part of the intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. This is typically a condition found in infants and young children.
inguinal hernia The protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.
bowel incontinence The inability to control the excretion of feces.
constipation A decrease in frequency in the passage of stools, or difficulty in passing hard, dry stools.
diarrhea An abnormal frequency of loose or watery stools that may lead to dehydration.
hemorrhoids Piles, Enlarged veins in or near the anus that may cause pain and bleeding.
melena The passage of black stools containing digested blood.
cirrhosis A progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by disturbance of structure and function of the liver. It frequently results in jaundice and ultimately hepatic failure.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
hepatorrhexis Rupture of the liver.
jaundice Icterus, A yellow discoloration of the skin and other tissues caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
hepatitis An inflammation of the liver that is usually caused by a virus that may also be caused by toxic substances.
HVA Infectious hepatitis, Transmitted by contaminated food and water.
HVB Serum hepatitis, Bloodborne and can be prevented through vaccination. Blood transfusions, sexual contact, and IV drug abuse are possible sources of contact with contaminated blood.
HVC Bloodborne and there is no vaccine to prevent this disease. It is described as a silent epidemic because it can be present in the body for years and destroy the liver before any symptoms appear.
HVD Bloodborne and there is no vaccine to prevent this disease.
HVE Transmitted through contaminated food and water.
cholecystalgia Pain in the gallbladder.
cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder.
gallstone Biliary calculus, A hard deposit that forms in the gallbladder and bile ducts.
biliary Relating to bile.
cholelithiasis Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
abdominal CT (comuted tomography)/CAT scan Radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen, showing for example the presence of a tumor or obstruction.
abdominal ultrasound A noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves.
anoscopy The visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum using a short speculum called an anoscope.
speculum An instrument used to enlarge the opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of its interior.
upper GI series or lower GI series Barium swallow/Barium enema, Radiographic studies to examine the digestive system. Barium is used as a contrast medium to make these structures visible.
enema A solution placed into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity. One purpose of this is to clear the bowels in preparation for an endoscopic examination.
hemoccult Fecal occult blood test/FOBT, Laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools. A test kit may be used at home and the specimens are delivered to a laboratory or physician's office for evaluation.
stool samples Specimens of feces that are examined for content & characteristics.
endoscope Instrument used for visual examination of internal structures. Also used for obtaining biopsy samples, controlling bleeding, removing foreign objects, as well as other surgical and treatment procedures.
colonoscopy The direct visual examination of the inner surface of the colon, from the rectum to the cecum.
gastrointestinal endoscopy The endoscopic examination of the interior of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
proctoscopy The endoscopic examination of the rectum and anus.
sigmoidoscopy The use of an endoscope for the direct visual examination of the interior of the entire rectum, sigmoid colon, and possible a portion of the descending colon.
acid blockers These taken before eating block the effects of histamine, which signals the stomach to produce acid.
antiemetic Prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting.
emetic Produces vomiting.
laxatives Medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements.
oral rehyrdtaion therapy/ORT A treatment in which a solution of eletrolytes is administered orally to counteract dehydration that may accompany severe diarrhea.
esophagoplasty The surgical repair of the esophagus.
extraction The term is used in dentistry, The surgical removal of a tooth.
gingivectomy The surgival removal of diseased gingival tissue.
maxillofacial surgery Specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries.
palatoplasty Surgical repair of a cleft palate.
gastrectomy The surgical removal of all or part of the stomach.
gastrotomy Surgical incision into the stomach.
nasogastric intubation The placement of a tube through the nose and into the stomach.
anoplasty Surgical repair of the anus.
colectomy Surgical removal of all or part of the colon.
colotomy Surgical incision into the colon.
diverticulectomy Surgical removal of a diverticulum.
gastroduodenostomy Removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis(connection) between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum.
anastomosis Surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures.
hemorrhoidectomy Surgical removal of hemorrhoids.
ileectomy Surgical removal of the ileum.
proctectomy Surgical removal of the rectum.
proctopexy Surgical fixation of the rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.
proctoplasty Surgical repair of the rectum.
ostomy Surgical procedure to create an artifical opening between an organ and the body surface. This term can be used alone as a noun to describe a procedure or as a suffix with the word part that describes the organ involved.
stoma Artifical opening between an organ and body surface.
gastrostomy Surgical creation of an artificial opening into the stomach. This procedure is frequently performed for the placement of a permanent feeding tube.
ileostomy Surgical creation of an opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the abdominal wall.
colostomy Surgical creation of an opening between the colon & the body surface. The entire segment of the intestine below this is usually removed & an effluent(moved discharge) flows from the stoma. May be temporary, to divert feces from an area that needs to heal.
hepatectomy Surgical removal of all or part of the liver.
hepatotomy Surgical incision into the liver.
liver transplant An option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer. Because liver tissue regenerates, a partial transplant, in which only part of a liver is donated, may be adequate.
choledocholithotomy An incision in the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones.
laparoscopic cholecystectomy/lap choley Surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope and other instruments while working through very small openings in the abdominal wall.