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Neuro for Comm

Basic Principles of Neuroscience & Relation to CSD

What is the scope of neuroscience? study of the structure and function of the nervous system
What are 7 basic principles of neuroscience? interconnectivity in the brain, centrality of the central nervous system, hierarchical organization of the nervous system, laterality of brain organization, functional specialization, topagraphical representation, and plasticity
What does interconnectivity in the brain mean? The brain is an integrated network. Everything is connected in the brain such as structure of neurons and functions working together. Ex: not being able to see but the occipital lobe still having function and being connected to other parts
What does centrality of the CNS mean? The CNS is the "headquarters". It integrates all incoming and outgoing info and generates appropriate responses
What dose hierarchical organization of the nervous system mean? There's the highest level of the cerebral cortex and lowest level of the spinal cord. Levels based on function complexity
Functions of cerebral cortex include: complex sensorimotor integration; higher mental functions – cognition, language, and speech
Functions of spinal cord include: sensori-motor functions - reflexes
What does laterality of brain organization refer to? Bilateral Anatomic Symmetry, Unilateral Functional Differences, and Contralateral Sensori-Motor Control
What does bilateral anatomic symmetry mean? 2 sides of left and right hemispheres that are structurally the same
What does unilateral functional differences mean? different functions on each single hemisphere such as language mostly being on left hemisphere
What does contralateral sensori-motor control mean? Right side of brain control left side of body and vice versa
What does "contra" refer to? crossing over
What does functional specialization mean? "Specialized nerve cells and networks". Neuron for feeling pain in foot is different pathway than the one that moves it.
What does topographical representation mean? “Spatial organization of nervous system reflects spatial relationship of boldly surface functional relationships" It's a map of the brain. If you can spot damage on a part of a brain you can map symptoms and use symptoms to see if damage on part of brain
What does plasticity mean? “Ability of the nervous system to change as a result of experience"
What does change for plasticity refer too? reorganize, modify tissue functions, repair networks, nerve regeneration. Our brains change our whole lives
Why is plasticity important to understand for cognitive scientists? You can change the way you are thinking or doing something. Motivation for professionals and patients.
Well developed and adequately connected nervous system is a prerequisite for... speech development, language acquisition, auditory processing, social-behavioral development, etc.
What did Paul Broca study? “Patients who could not speak” despite no difficulty understanding and no problems w/their speech muscles. Autopsy showed damage in frontal lobe of left hemisphere caused people to struggle w/speaking or not speak at all. Damaged spot called Broca's area
What did Carl Wernicke study? “patients who could not understand spoken language” despite normal hearing ability. Autopsy showed damage in Temporal lobe; Left hemisphere of brain. Damaged area called Wernicke's area.
Neuroembryology? development of the nervous system
Neuroanatomy? structure of the nervous system
Neurophysiology? functions of the nervous system
Neuropathology? diseases and disorders of the nervous system
Neuropsychology? study of the relationship between brain and behavior
Neurology? diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders
Neurosurgery? surgical treatment of nervous system disorders
Neuroradiology? Imaging techniques to examine nervous system
Created by: sshipman
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