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repro -- viral std

WVSOM -- Repro System -- Viral STDs

How long does it take for Herpes to be cleared by the immune system? It is never cleared. Have for live.
How long does it take for HPV to be cleared by the immune system? 2 to 12 months
How does HSV-2 infect and replicate? infects epithelial cells. Replicates and releases as it lyses the cell. Enters receptors through the peripheral nerve (retrograde travel). Tethers itself to a chromosome so it isn't degraded.
What color is the nucleus in an infected nerve cell? euchromatic
What keeps herpes latent in a cell and not active? euchromatic nucleus. No division is occuring so the virus does not replicate and stays latent
What causes the virus to become active? stress, trauma etc. activates nucleus and becomes heterochrmomatic allowing the virus to replicate.
How does HSV-2 prevent the cell from undergoing apoptosis? blocks neuronal apoptosis thru miRNAi/siRNA. The neuron survives infection and reactivation.
What are the signs of a primary episode of HSV-2? can be asymptomatic or occur with meningitis. Painful, usually multiple blister-like lesions on vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, buttocks, penis or scrotum.. Ininguinal lymphadenopathy.
What happens before an HSV-2 eruption? prodrome. Itching, burning, tingling
How long does the primary episode of HSV-2 last? 12-20 days
How much of the viral shedding is asymptomatic? male 17/100 days and female 30/100 days.
When is there an increased risk with neonatal herpes? During 3rd trimester if there is a recurrent disease
What are the 3 clinical patterns of neonatal herpes? SEM (skin, eyes, mouth), CNS (wencephalitis) and disseminated.
What happens to survivors of neonatal herpes? impaired neurological status
When do you do a c section on a mother with herpes? only if lesions are present
What decreased mortality with neonatal herpes? acyclovir
When is most neonatal herpes acquired? in birth canal
What are some other possible causes of genital ulcerations? varicella zoster virus (shingles), syphilis, chancroid, candidiasis, scabies, lice, and dermatological conditions (crohn's and Behcet's)
How did you diagnose HSV-2? Viral culture (POCkit, Western Blot, Ab-based tests)
Who most likely spreads herpes? asymptomatic shedder
How do you prevent HSV transmission? Abstinence during symptomatic outbreaks and condoms
What is responsible for 95% of cervical cancer? HPV
What does HPV cause? benign tumors
What are the 4 types of HPV that are mucocutaneous? 6,11,16, 18
Which HPV are potentially malignant? 16,18
Why are benign tumors on layrnx still dangerous? will collapse the layrnx
Where are receptors in skin for HPV? basal layer
Where does HPV replicate? granular layer
What causes cervical dysplasia? Hyperkeratosis and vacuolization in granular layer
What does the body do to most HPV? clears it
What causes the symptoms of herpes infection and why can it be asymptomatic? interferons. Shedding is asymptomatic if interferons are not activated.
How was herpes first diagnosed? Multinucleated giant cells seen with Tzanck smear
Does HPV cause malignancy by itself? NO!!!!! It causes benign growth. Co factors are needed for malignancy and takes 9-15 years
How does a latent infection turn into benign growth? integration of HPV into the genome
How does HPV stop cell apoptosis? blocks p53
What does p53 do? Guardian of the genome. Inhibition of DNA replication and cell division leading to apoptosis
What does HPV do to cause more proliferation? E7 gene inhibits Rb gene which normally inhibits S phase of the cell cycle (proliferation)
What does E6 gene in HPV do? induces telamerase and allows for integration into the genome
What is the net effect of HPV on cells? inhibits apoptosis and allows for more proliferation
Why does HPV 16,18 associate more when carcinoma than 6,11? 16, 18 have a greater affinity for E6/E7 proteins for p53/Rb. 6,11 do not degrade p53 or fully destabilize Rb
What does the E2 gene do in HPV? controls expression of E6/7 until it is integrated into the genome where it is no longer able to control expression and it runs rampant.
How do you diagnose HPV? Colposcopy and pap smear combine with DNA tests kids (hybrid capture)
What is hybrid capture test? RNA/DNA hybrid that is sandwiches and shows up with fluorescence. Very sensitive test.
How effective is treatment for clearance and recurrence of HPV? neither are 100% effective
Created by: tjamrose