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Church History 2

MIdterm of Events and People in Church History from 1451-1968

Name of PersonDatesImportance
Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony 1463-1525 German leader who sheltered Martin Luther, setting the political stage for the German Reformation
Desiderius Erasmus c.1466-1536 Roman Catholic Humanist who wanted peaceful reform; Wrote Praise of Folly and produced first critical edition of the Greek New Testament
Thomas More 1478-1535 Roman Catholic priest and minister of Henry VIII; Was beheaded for refusing to go along with the English Reformation
Martin Luther 1483-1546 German priest who was the “Father of the Reformation”
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531 Swiss priest who began the Swiss Reformation in Zurich and laid the groundwork for the ideas later worked out by John Calvin
Thomas Cranmer 1489-1556 Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIII; Chief architect of the English Reformation
Martin Bucer 1491-1551 Moderate reformer based in Strassburg
Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556 Spanish nobleman who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the chief agency of the Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Philip Melanchthon 1497-1560 Disciple of Martin Luther who further developed Luther’s ideas
Heinrich Bullinger 1504-1575 Zwingli’s successor in Zurich
John Calvin 1509-1564 French priest who became the leader and chief theologian of the Swiss Reformation at Geneva
Henry VIII ↔1509-1547 King of England, whose desire for an annulment occasioned the English Reformation
Leo X ↔1513-1521 Pope at the beginning of the Reformation; Condemned and excommunicated Luther
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ↔1519-1556 Holy Roman Emperor at the beginning of the Reformation; Ardent Catholic who sought Luther’s arrest
Theodore Beza 1519-1605 Calvin’s successor in Geneva
Elizabeth I, Queen of England 1533-1603 Secured the success of the moderate Anglican reformation in England
Charles Borromeo 1538-1584 Roman Catholic reformer and leading theologian at the Council of Trent
Robert Bellarmine 1542-1621 Roman Catholic reformer and chief spokesman for Tridentine Catholicism
Menno Simons †1561 Radical reformer who founded the Mennonites
Cardinal Armande Richelieu 1585-1642 Advisor to Louis XIII of France responsible for the suppression of Protestants in France
Rene Descartes 1596-1650 French philosopher who was the father of modern philosophy; Through methodology of doubt, came up with his dictum of Cogito, ergo sum.
Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658 Puritan leader in England who led the country through the Puritan Commonwealth
Charles I of England ↔1625-1649 King of England who was beheaded by the Puritan revolutionaries
George Fox 1624-1691 Spiritual leader who believed in “inner light”; Founder of the Quakers (Society of Friends)
John Locke 1632-1704 British philosopher and forefather of British empiricism
Philipp Jakob Spener 1635-1705 Lutheran pastor who led the Pietist movement within Lutheranism; Wrote Pia Desideria
François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) 1694-1778 French academic who wrote widely and contributed to the movement toward secularity in France
Ludwig von Zinzendorf 1700-1760 German noble and leader of the Moravians; Clashed with John Wesley over the issue of faith
John Wesley 1703-1791 English theologian and evangelist; Leader of the Evangelical Revival in England and founder of the Methodist Church
Jonathan Edwards 1703-1758 American Puritan pastor and leader in the First Great Awakening
David Hume 1711-1776 British philosopher whose skeptical philosophy undermined the rational basis for religion
Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 Prussian philosopher whose ideas gave a definitive shape to modern philosophy
William Wilberforce 1759-1833 British Methodist abolitionist
William Carey 1761-1834 British missionary to India and father of the modern missionary movement
F. C. Baur 1762-1860 Professor at the University of Tubingen and father of modern biblical criticism
Friedrich Schleiermacher 1768-1834 German pastor and theologian, forefather of both modern liberal and “evangelical” Christianity
Napolean Bonaparte 1769-1821 Emperor of France whose policies continued the secularization of France
G. W. F. Hegel 1770-1831 German philosopher, founder of German Idealism
Louis XVI of France ↔1774-1792 King of France who was beheaded by the French Revolution
Simón Bolívar 1783-1830 Leader of the independence movements in Latin America
Joseph Smith, Jr. 1805-1844 Founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons)
Soren Kierkegaard 1813-1855 Danish philosopher and theologian, founder of Existential philosophy
Alberecht Ritschl 1822-1889 German theologian and leader in modern liberal Christianity
William Booth 1829-1912 Founder of the Salvation Army
Dwight L. Moody 1837-1899 American revivalist, leader in the Second Great Awakening
Phineas F. Bresee 1838-1915 American Methodist pastor and founder of the Church of the Nazarene
Pius IX ↔1846-78 Pope who combated modernist tendencies in the Roman Catholic Church and called the First Vatican Council
Rudolf Bultmann 1884-1976 Professor at University of Marburg and important figure in 20th century biblical studies
Karl Barth 1886-1965 Swiss theologian and pastor, founder of Neo-Orthodoxy
Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945 German theologian and pastor who was killed by the Nazis for plotting against Hitler
John XXIII ↔1958-63 Reforming Pope who called the Second Vatican Council
Luther’s 95 Theses 1517 Beginning of the Protestant Reformation
Diet of Worms 1521 Condemned Luther
Peasants War 1524-25 Peasants who take Luther’s ideas “too far” are violently supressed with Luther’s support
Council of Trent 1545-64 Key event in the Catholic Reformation
Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 Supression of Protestants in France
Synod of Dort 1618-19 Determined official Calvinist orthodoxy in the Netherlands
Defenestration of Prague 1618 Start of the “Thirty Years War”
Westminster Catechism 1647 Determined official Calvinist orthodoxy for Puritans; Still held as authoritative for many sectors of Calvinism today
Puritan Commonwealth 1649-60 Theocratic rule by the Purtians in England in absence of a king
French Revolution 1789-95 Beginning of First French Republic; Start of secularization in Europe
Gospel of Matthew in Burmese 1817 Important milestone in the beginnings of world-wide mission
Livingston in Africa 1841 Important milestone in Christian missions to Africa
Communist Manifesto Published 1845 Beginning of Communist Ideology
Vatican I 1869-70 Called to address the question of Modernity; Affirmed Tridentine Catholicism; Promulgated doctrine of Papal Infallibility
Rerum Novarum published 1891 Beginnings of Catholic Social movement; Reveals the ambiguity of the reaction of Roman Catholicism to Modernity
World Mission Conference at Edinburgh 1910 Beginning of the ecumenical movement
World War I 1914-18 First truly global conflict beginning of the end of Modernity
Bolshevik Revolution 1917 Communist takeover of Russia
World War II 1939-45 Most destructive human conflict in history
Promulgation of the Assumption of Mary 1950 Only time the doctrine of Papal Infallibility has been explicitly invoked
World Council of Churches 1954 Important milestone in the growth of the ecumenical movement
Year of African Independances 1960 Beginning of the end of colonialism in Africa, in which 17 nations become independent
Vatican II 1962-65 Brought Roman Catholic church into the modern era and addressed most of the problems that caused the Reformation
Medellin Conference 1968 Milestone for the growth of Liberation Theology in Latin America
Isabella of Castile 1451-1503 Instigator of church reform in Spain, first of the “successful” reformers
Created by: Marvo



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