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AP Human Geography

10&11: Agriculture and Industry

agriculture deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
crop any plant cultivated by people
vegetative planting reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants (cutting stems & dividing roots)
seed agriculture reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
subsistence agriculture production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family
commercial agriculture production of food primarily for sale off the farm
agribusiness system of commercial farming found in the United States and other relatively developed countries
prime agricultural land most productive farmland
shifting cultivation form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
slash-and-burn agriculture farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris
swidden patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
pastoral nomadism form of sutsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals
transhumance seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
pasture grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
intensive subsistence agriculture form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
wet rice practice of planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
paddy Malay word for wet rice
sawah flooded field for growing rice
chaff husks of grain seperated from the seed by threshing
threshed beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
winnowed to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
hull outer covering of a seed
double cropping harvesting twice a year from the same field
crop rotation practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
cereal grain grass yielding grain for food
milkshed area surrouding a city from which milk is supplied
grain seed of a cereal grain
winter wheat wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
spring wheat wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
reaper machine that cuts grain standing in the field
combine machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
ranching form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
horticulture growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
truck farming commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
plantation large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usully to a more developed country
sustainable agriculture farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
ridge tillage system of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
desertification degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
green revolution rapid diffustion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
break-of-bulk point location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
bulk-gaining industry industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
bulk-reducing industry industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
cottage industry manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the industrial revolution
fordist form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
industrial revolution series of improvements in industrial technoogy that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
labor-intensive industry industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses
maquiladora factories built by USA companies in Mexico near the U.S. border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
new international divistion of labor transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
post-fordist adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
right-to-work state a U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
site factors location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
situation factors location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
textile fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
trading bloc group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
Created by: SophomoreStud08
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