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Neuroantanomy

Count Bobula Spinal Cord Lecture

QuestionAnswer
Where does the spinal cord begin and end? superiorly at foramen magnum Ends at L1/L2 invertebral disc
The spinal cord is continuous with what structure medulla oblongata
What is the length of the cervical enlargement? C5 to T1
Cervical enlargement gives rise to what? brachial plexus
What does the brachial plexus do? innervate upper limb
What segment of spinal cord extends from L1 to S3 Lumbosacral or Lumbar enlargement
What rises from the lumbosacral enlargement? lumbar and sacral plexuses which innervate lower limb
The three terminating structures of the spinal cord are what? Conus Medullaris, Filum Terminale, Cauda Equina
What is a connective tissue filament extending from the conus medullaris to attach at the coccyx? Filum Terminale
Which spinal nerves are part of the Cauda Equina? roots that extend below the conus medullaris
Until what week of development does the spinal cord run the length of the vertebal canal? 8th
What is the alignment of spinal cord segments and verterbrae prior to the 8th week The are aligned with corresponding segments
When does the vertebral column begin growing faster than the spinal cord? Result 3rd month. inferior end lies at progressively higher vertebral levels
What are the levels of the spinal cord and verterbra at 6 months, birth, adult? 6 months = S1 birth = L3 Adult = L1/L2
How do the spinal roots elongate to maintain innervation? descend obliquely to intervertebral foramina
What are the three meninges of the spinal cord? Dura Mater Arachnoid (mater) Pia Mater
The loose sac, _____, around spinal cord and cauda equina that is continuous with _______ of the brain. dura mater, dura
The inferior termination of the dura? blindly at S2
Where is the Filum terminale internum? Upper part that is within dural sac
Where is filum terminale externum? What covers it? passes out of dural sac and picks up investment of dura mater
Where is the coccygeal ligament? same thing as filum terminale externum - continuation of filum terminale after dural sac
What is between dura mater and vertebrae? epidural space
What is in the epidural space? fat, loose connective tissue, internal vertebral venous plexus
Where is the internal vertebral venous plexus? epidural space
What is the epineurium? connective tissue covering of a nerve
where to the dura mater and epineurium meet? dura mater forms a sleeve around the roots of each spinal nerve. It fuses with the epineurium at the intervertebral foramen
Who da arachnoid? delicate membrane that lines the internal surface of the dura mater
What is the beginning and ending of the arachnoid? continuous with cranial arachnoid; extends full length of dural sac; lines dural sleeves around spinal nerves
Where is the subdural space? potential space between dura mater and arachnoid
Where is the subarachnoid space? beginning? ending? real space between arachnoid and pia mater Continous with sub of brain and extend to S2, also go in spinal nerve root sleeves
What is in the subarachnoid space? cerebrospinal fluid
What is filled with CSF and contains anterior and posterior nerve roots of the cauda equina and filium terminale internum? Lumbar cistern
What are the boundaries of the lumbar cistern? subarachnoid space inferior to conus medullaris
Where should you stick the ho for a lumbar puncture? between L3/L4 or L4/l5 verterbral arches
What is the vascular membrane the intimately follows the surface of the spinal cord and nerve roots within arachnoid? Pia Mater
What is the superior boundary of the Pia Mater? continuous with pia mater of medulla oblongata
What other structure in the spinal cord rises from pia mater? part of the filum terminale
What stabilizes the spinal cord in the coronal plane? Denticulate ligament
Where can denticulate ligament be found? lateral edges between anterior and posterior roots
What is the denticulate projections relationship with the arachnoid? penetrate it
What is the name of the deep groove along the anterior midline of the spinal cord? Anterior Median Fissure
What is the shallow groove along the posterior midline? posterior median sulcus
Where do the rootlets of the anterior roots of the spinal nerves attach? anterolateral sulcus
Where do the rootlets of the posterior roots of the spinal nerves attach? posterolateral sulcus
what spinal cord surface feature is located between the posterior median sulcus and posterolateral sulcus Posterior intermediate sulcus
What spinal cord surface feature is only present in the cervical and upper thoracic regions of the spinal cord posterior intermediate sulcus
Spinal nerves are formed by what? Anterior (ventral) and Posterior (dorsal) roots
Efferent fibers are what type? Which direction? ventral, motor fibers carrying information away from spinal cord,
Afferent fibers are what type, which direction? dorsal, sensory fibers carrying information to the spinal cord
What does the dorsal root contain that the anterior root does not? Name? a ganglion that contains the cell bodies of the sensory neurons - posterior root ganglion
Why are spinal nerves called mixed? contain both motor and sensory fibers
Which spinal nerve ramus is smaller? What does it innervate? Posterior ramus innvervates skin and deep muscles of back
Which spinal nerve ramus is larger? what does it innervate? anterior ramus innervates skin and muscles of limbs and anterolateral trunk and superficial back muscles
How many pairs of spinal nerves exist? Break them down: 31 pair:P 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
Nerves leave the vertebral canal where? C1-C7, C8, T1 down C1-C7: superior to the vertebra C8: between C7 and T1 T1 down: inferior to the vertebra
Where is the central cavity of the spinal cord? What does it do? narrow cavity in center of cord that communicates with the ventricular system of brain
With what specific ventricle does the central cavity communicate? What lines it? lined by ependymal cells, it communicates with the fourth ventricle
Where is the gray mater and white matter? gray matter centrally located, white mater on periphery
Which matter has a butterfly or H shape? Gray matter
What are the four regions of the gray matter? posterior horn, anterior horn, intermediate zone, lateral horn
What are the two segments of the lateral horn? thoracic and upper lumbar
How is the gray matter constructed? What is the formal name? divided into layers based on cytoarchitecture, called the laminae of Rexed
What layers fit posterior horn? laminae I to VI
What layers fit intermediate zone? lamina VII
What layers fit Anterior zone? part of VII plus VIII and IX
What layer fit Around central canal? Lamina X
How does sensory information reach higher neuraxis in the brain? carried by sensory fibers through the dorsal roots to the neurons in the posterior horn then axons ascend to white matter in neuraxis
Where is the marginal nucleus? What lamina is it? marginal or posteromarginal nucleus is at apex of posterior horn, lamina I
Lamina II makes up what? Substantia Gelatinosa of the posterior horn nuclei
Laminae III and IV form what? nucleus proprius or proper/principal sensory nucleus of posterior horn nuclei
In what special regions or segments are the posterior horn nuclei found? All are present along the whole length of the spinal cord?
The anterior horn is mostly involved with what? voluntary movements
Where do the axons travel from neurons located in the anterior horn? leave through anterior roots to supply skeletal muscle fibers
What is the name of neurons in anterior horn? somatic motor neurons
What supply extrafusal muscle fibers alpha motor neurons
What supply intrafusal muscle fibers (where)? Gamma motor neurons in muscle spindles
What is an extrafusal muscle fiber? standard muscle fiber that generates tension by contraction allowing for skeletal movement
What makes up a motor unit? The alpha motor neuron and the extrafusal muscle fibers it innervates make up the motor unit. The connection between the alpha motor neuron and the extrafusal muscle fiber is a neuromuscular junction.
What are intrafusal muscle fibers These fibers are a proprioceptor that detect the amount and rate of change of length in a muscle.
What are the two parts of the anterior horn? medial motor column and lateral motor column
Which column has motor neurons that innervate limb muscles? Where are the neurons found? lateral column in cervical and lumbosacral enlargements
What does the medial motor neurons innervate? where is it found? neck and truck, or axial musculature...found at all levels
What is the phrenic nucleus? What segments does it exit? leaves via C3-C5, innervates diaphragm via phrenic nerve
What motor nucleus sends axons out C1-C5 to form the spinal root of the accessory nerve? Accessory nucleus
What area of gray matter is continuous medially with gray matter around the central canal Intermediate zone
What is the purpose of the intermediate zone interneurons for segmental and intersegmental intergration of spinal functions
What nuclei are found in the medial part of the intermediate zone? Nucleus of Clarke/nucleus dorsalis/thoracic nucleus
What segments are nucleus of Clarke C8-L3
Where do the axons of thoracic nucleus go? ascend in white matter to cerebellum in posterior spinocerebellar tract
What forms the lateral horn? Segments? preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the intermediolateral nucleus, segments T1-L2
What are the sacral parasympathetic nucleus? S2-S4 preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
What are the three regions in which white matter is found in the spinal cord? Posterior (dorsal)Funiculus lateral funiculus anterior (ventral) funiculus
What are the boundaries of the dorsal funiculus? between posterior median sulcus and posterolateral sulcus
what are the boundaries of the ventral funiculus? between anterolateral suclus and anterior median fissure
what are the boundaries of the lateral funiculus? between posterolateral and anterolateral sulci
Which direction do the fibers of the white matter of spinal cord travel? Pupose? long ascending and descending tracts that interconnect the spinal cord to the brain
What interconnects the white matter spinal cord segments? propriospinal (intersegmental) fibers
Where are propriospinal (intersegmental) fibers found? fasciculus proprius: narrow band adjacent to gray matter
Why are propriospinal fibers important? coordinate complicated messages from other body parts
Name of super important area of white matter anterior to gray matter and deep to median fissure? Anterior White commissure
Why is the anterior white commissure important? contains fibers that cross from one side of the cord to the other - ALL pain and temperature sensation must travel through it
What part of white matter do all pain and temperature signals travel through? anterior white commissure
Where Lissauer's tract? What are it's other names? posterolateral tract, dorsolateral fasciculus lies between apex of posterior horn and spinal cord surface
What is the area of white matter that lies at the top of the butterfly or posterior horn dorsal fasciculus of Lissauer
How does the dorsal fasciculus of Lissauer disseminate information? propriospinal fibers and fibers from posterior root. These bifurcate and ascend or descend to travel 1 or 2 segments to collaterals in posterior horn
What sensory modalities are carried by the ascending tracts of spinal cord? all signals from receptors: pain, thermal, tactile, muscle and joint
The posterior column has two parts. What are they? fasciculus gracilus (medialy) fasciculus cuneatus (laterally from T6 up)
What does fasciculus gracilus commnicate? From where? info from lower half of body: discriminative touch, vibration, limp position and motion
How far does f. gracilus info go up? to cerebral cortex (consciousness)
What is transmitted by fasciulus cuneatus? info. from upper half of body - T6 and up - also discriminative touch, vibration, limb position
Where and what is the tract that transmits pain, temparture and non-discriminative information? spinothalmic tract lies lateral and anterior to anterior horn
What is the very thin, skin like layer around the spinal cord that carries proprioceptive and tactile information to cerebellum anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
Where at the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts located? at periphery of lateral funiculus
How are lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts different than ant/lat spinocerebellar tracts Look at name. They go from cortex to spine...thus descending tracts
Where is the most important descending tract that carries 90% of the information lateral corticospinal - located in lateral funiculus, deep to posterior spinocerebellar tract
Where is the anterior corticospinal tract? anterior funiculus, just lateral to anterior median fissure
What tract starts at the red nucleus in the brain then enters the spinal cord rubrospinal tract
Where does the rubrospinal tract travel lateral funiculus, just anterior to lateral corticospinal tract
What information does the rubrospinal tract carry? control of muscle tone, especially limb flexor muscles (excitatory)
What tract carries excitatory influence to increase the tone of extensor muscles? Lateral vestibulospinal tract
Where does the lateral vestibulospinal tract start and run? starts in lateral vestibular nucleus, runs in anterior funiculus close to surface
where does the medial vestibulospinal tract start and run? starts in medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, runs in medial part of anterior funiculus as part of medial longitudinal fasciculus
What is unique about vestibulospinal tract? 1. only in cervical region 2. controls head and neck position 3. travels as part of bidirectional path, the medial longitudinal fasciculus
What tract starts at the pons? path? medial (pontine) reticulospinal tract begins at reticular formation of pons, descends in anterior funiculus
where does lateral reticulospinal tract begin and run? start in reticular formation of medulla, descend in anterior part of lateral funiculus
what do the reticulospinal fibers control? How do we differentiate the two tracts? muscle tone; pontine (excitatory);medullary (inhibitory)
Created by: El Diablo