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Chp 10-Nervous Sys 6

Pathologic Conditions: Davi-Ellen Chabner The Language of Medicine 8th Edition

QuestionAnswer
The glial cells surround the neruons, forming a _____ _____ _____ that prevents many harmful substances in the blood, access to the neurons. Blood-brain barrier
Nerve cells are extremely sensitive to _____ deficiency. Oxygen
Neurologic disorders are classified into these six categories: 1) Congenital 2) Deenerative, movement, seizure 3) Infectious (meningitis & encephalitis) 4) Neoplastic (tumors) 5) Traumatic 6) Vascular (stroke).
Abnormal accumulation of CSF fluid in the brain. Hydrocephalus.
In hydrocephalus, CSF builds up in the _____ of the brain. Ventricles.
To relieve CSF pressure on the brain, a _____ is placed from the ventricles to the _____ or _____. Shunt, peritoneal space (abdomen), right atrium of the heart.
A shunt to drain CSF from the brain to the abdomen is called: Ventriculoperitoneal.
Hydrocephalus in adults can be the result of: Tumor, infection.
The glial cells surround the neruons, forming a _____ _____ _____ that prevents many harmful substances in the blood, access to the neurons. Blood-brain barrier
Nerve cells are extremely sensitive to _____ deficiency. Oxygen
Neurologic disorders are classified into these six categories: 1) Congenital 2) Deenerative, movement, seizure 3) Infectious (meningitis & encephalitis) 4) Neoplastic (tumors) 5) Traumatic 6) Vascular (stroke).
Abnormal accumulation of CSF fluid in the brain. Hydrocephalus.
In hydrocephalus, CSF builds up in the _____ of the brain. Ventricles.
To relieve CSF pressure on the brain, a _____ is placed from the ventricles to the _____ or _____. Shunt, peritoneal space (abdomen), right atrium of the heart.
A shunt to drain CSF from the brain to the abdomen is called: Ventriculoperitoneal.
Hydrocephalus in adults can be the result of: Tumor, infection.
Birth defect from imperfect/incomplete union of vertebral parts. Spina bifida.
Spina bifida occurs in the _____ spinal column. Lumbar.
Spina bifida is also called: Neural tube defect.
Neural tube defect where the defect is covered with skin: Spina bifida occulta
Neural tube defect where the defect is a cyst-like protrusion: Spini bifida cystica
Neural tube defect where the meninges protrode to the outside of the body: Meningocele
Neural tube defect where both spinal cord and meninges protrude. Myelomeningocele
Diagnosing spina bifida during gestation is by these methods: Alphafetoprotein in blood, imaging methods (ultrasound), and amniocentesis.
Hydrocephalus & spina bifida are _____ disorders. Congential.
Brain disorder with progress mental deterioration, personality changes, & impairment of daily function: Alzheimer disease (AD).
Progressive mental deterioration: Dementia.
Alzheimer disease has these characteristics: Confusion, memory failure, disorientation, restlessness, speech disturbances, anxiety, depression, and emotional disturbences.
Alzheimer disease generally begins at what stage of life, and can worsen after age: Middle life, 70.
Alzheimer changes seen on autopsy of the brain: Atrophy of cortex, widening of sulci, especially in the frontal/temporal regions.
Degeneration of neurons & neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex are seen on: Microscopy exam of brain on autopsy.
Bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasy of a neuron: Neurofibrillary tangles.
Deposits of the protein, _____, occur in neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques, and blood vessels. Amyloid.
Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord & brain stem. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Lou Gehrig disease: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Amyotrphic lateral sclerosis symptoms: weakness/atrophy of muscles in hands, forearms, legs; difficulty swallowing/talking; dyspnea.
Chronic brain disorder with recurrent seizure activity. Epilepsy.
An abnormal, sudden excessive discharge of electrical activity within the brain: Seizure.
Seizures are often symptoms of pathologic conditions such as: Brain tumor, meningitis, vascular disease, or scar tissue from a head injury.
What type of seizure is characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, tonic contractions, followed by clonic contractions. Clonic seizures (grand mal or ictal events).
Stiffening of muscles: Tonic contractions.
Twitching & jerking movements of the limbs: Clonic contractions.
Convelsions are often preceded by an: Aura.
Examples of aura: Dizziness, numbness, visual, and/or olfactory disturbances.
A minor form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness & loss of awareness of the person's surroundings. Absence seizures (petit mal).
Meds for control of epileptic seizures are called: Anticonvulsants.
After seizures, neurologic symptoms such as weakness: Postictal events.
The Greek term meaning "laying hold of" is the source of what word: Epilepsy.
Disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum, leading to abrupt involuntary movements & mental deterioration: Huntington disease.
Huntington disease symptoms: Personality changes, choreic (dance-like) movements, (uncontrollable, irregular, jerking movements of the arms & legs, facial grimacing).
DNA testing shows the genetic defect for Huntington disease on: Chromosome 4.
Treatment of Huntington: Symptom management - no cure available.
Treatment of ALS: None known.
Condition with destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS & its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue. Multiple sclerosis (MS).
A leading cause of neuro disability in 20-40 year old-s: Multiple sclerosis (MS).
MS is a chronic disease marked by long periods of stability called _____ and worsening called _____. Remission, relapse.
Loss of meylin insulation: Demyelination.
_____ prevents the conduction of nerve impulses through the axon Demyelination.
Causes paresthesias, muscle weakness, unsteady gait, and paralysis. Demyelination (condition of multiple sclerosis).
In MS there may be _____ and _____ disturbances. Visual (blurred/double vision), speech.
What diagnostic study shows scared myelin (plaques): MRI
Multiple sclerosis etiology: Unknown, but probably an autoimmune disease orlymphocytes reacting against myelin.
Multiple sclerosis treatment: Disease modifying drugs (DMD) can slow the progression by preventing the immune system from destroying myelin.
An autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles (attached to bones): Myasthenia gravis (MG).
Myasthenia gravis is a chronic _____ disorder. Autoimmune.
In MG, antibodies block the ability of _____ to transmit the nervous impluse from nerve to muscle cell. Acetylcholine (neurotransmitter).
Myasthenia gravis symptoms: Onset is gradual, with ptosis of upper eyelid, double vision (diplopie) and facial weakness.
Myasthenia gravis treatment: Therapy to reverse symptoms includes anticholinesterace drugs, corticosteriods, and immunosuppressive drugs.
Anticholinesterace drugs work by: Inhibits the enzyme that break down acetylcholine.
Corticosteriod med to treat MG: Prednisone.
Immunosuppressive drugs to treat MG: Azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide.
Surgical treatment used in MG: Thymectomy.
Paralysis means: Palsy: Partial or complete loss of motor function.
Partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxyten or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy, or in the perinatal period. Cerebral palsy.
Paralysis on one side of the face can be caused by: Bell's palsy.
Bell's palsy cause: Viral infection.
Bell's palsy treament: Antiviral drug to treat virus, and nerve swelling.
Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring later in life - leading to tremors, weakness of nuscles, & slowness of movements. Parkinson disease (parkinsonism).
Parkinson disease cause: Deficiency of dopamine (a neurotransmitter).
Dopamine is made by cells in the _____ _____. Basal ganglia.
Motor disturbances in PD include: Stooped posture, shuffling gait, muscle stiffness/rigidity, dyskinesias, & hand tremor.
Parkinson disease treatment: Palliative treatment with levodopa + carbidopa (Sinemet) to increase dopamine levels.
Experimental treatment is implantation of fetal brain tissue containing dopamine-producing cells for which disease? Parkinson disease (parkinsonism).
Involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; inappropriate words. Tourette syndrome.
Involuntary movements are called: Tics.
Tourette syndrome cause: Unknown, but associated with excess or hypersensitivity to dopamine.
Tourette syndrome treatment: Antipsychotic drugs haloperidol (Haldol) antidepressants, & mood stabilizers.
Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves: Herpes zoster (shingles).
Symptoms of blisters & pain along periopheral nerves are caused by a _____ virus. Herpes.
The chicken pox virus, which can later develop into shingles, is herpes _____ _____. Varicella-zoster.
Skin innervation by spinal or cranial nerves is called a: Dermatome.
Inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis: Meningitis.
Meningitis cause: Bacteria (pyogenic meningitis) or virus (aseptic or viral meningitis).
Symptoms include: Fever, headache, photophobia, and a stiff neck. Meningitis.
Meningitis is diagnosed by what diagnostic procedure: Lumbar puncture (LP) - to evaluate the CSF.
Meningitis treatment: Antivirals for the viral form, antibiotics for the moer serious pyogenic form.
Brain disease & dementia occuring with AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy.
Neurologic dysfunctions common with AIDS: HIV encephalopathy; encephalitis, dementia, brain tumors, and other infections.
Loss of mental functioning: Dementia.
Abnormal growth of brain tissue & meninges: Brain tumor.
Primary brain tumors usually arise from _____ cells, also called _____; or from the _____ also called _____. Glial/gliomas; meningiomas.
Types of gliomas: Astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma.
Most malignant form of astrocytoma is: Glioblastoma multiforme.
Tumors can cause _____ _____ and _____. Cerebral edema, hydrocephalus.
If CSF presssure is increased, swelling may also occur near the _____ _____. Optic nerve.
Glioma treatment: Surgery.
If glioma is not completely resected, further treatment is by: Radiotherapy.
To reduce post-surgery swelling, _____ may be given. Steroids.
A meningioma is usually a _____ brain tumor surrounded by a _____. Benign, capsule.
Benign tumors can still cause _____ and _____ of the brain. Compression, distortion.
Most brain tumors are metastatic from primary tumors located in the: Lung, breast, skin (melanoma),kidney, & GI tract.
Brain tumors may be _____ or _____ metastatic growths. Single, multiple.
Traumatic brain dysfunction (with brief LOC) after injury. Cerebral concussion.
Severe concussions may lead to: Coma.
Concussion symptoms last _____. Less than 24 hours.
Bruising of the brain tissue as a result of direct traumat to the head. Cerebral contusion.
Cerebral contusion symptoms last _____. More than 24 hours.
Hematomas may occur with (concussion or contusion). Contusion.
Types of hematomas from cerebral contusion: Subdural, epidural.
Hematomas may lead to _____. Permanent brain injury.
Permanent brain injury can include: Altered memory, altered speech, development of epilepsy.
Disruption in the normal blood supply of the brain: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
A stroke is also known as a: Cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction.
A CVA is caused by: Loss of oxygen to the brain.
Three types of stroke: 1) Thrombotic, 2) Embolic, 3) Hemorrhagic.
In atherosclerosis, blood vessels become blocked over time. This type of CVA is called: Thrombotic.
Short episodes of neurologic dysfunction due to occlusion of blood vessels: Transient ischemic attack (TIA).
When a thrombus breaks free, its called an embolus and blocks an artery to the brain. very suddenly. This type of CVA is called: Embolic.
When blood vessels break/bleed, this type of stroke can be fatal: Hemorrhagic.
Small hemorrhagic CVAs can result in _____ recovery with only _____ disability. Good, slight.
Hemorrhagic CVA in older patients is usually caused by: Advancing age, atherosclerosis, or HTN.
Hemorrhagic CVA in younger patients is usually caused by: Skull fracture or ruptured arterial aneurysm.
Major risk factors for CVA: Primary: HTN, diabetes, smoking, heart disease. Additional: Obesity, substance abuse, elevated cholesterol.
Thrombotic CVA medication treatment: Anticoagulant drugs. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is started within 3 hours of onset.
Thrombotic CVA surgical treatment: Carotid endarterectomy.
Created by: bethybb