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Ancient Egypt

6th Grade Ch.4 Ancient Egypt

World's longest river Nile
Sources of the Nile White Nile and Blue Nile
Where do the two rivers meet? Khartoum, in the country now called Sudan. In ancient times the land was known as Kush or Nubia.
cataracts Set of rocky rapids
interior an area away from the coast
Upper Egypt narrow valley lined with cliffsup stream from the Mediteranean Sea
Delta area of soil deposited at the mouth of a river
Lower Egypt the Nile delta area
Black Land A narrow strip of fertile soil lines both banks of the Nile. This rich, dark soil was so important to Egyptians that they named there country Kemet, which means "Black Land".
annual Yearly flooding of the Nile created the Black Land.
double-crop Raise two crops on the same land within a year.
Red Land On either side of the Black Land was the endless Sahara called the Red Land.Red Land was deadly hot, burning sands.
Upper Egypt Kings wore white crowns and controlled the Nile River Valley
Lower Egypt Kings wore red crowns and controlled the delta.
Menes King who united Upper and Lower Egypt in about 3000 BC
Lord of the Two Lands King wore a double crown of red and white
authority a person with authority has the right to control over the people
pharaoh rules of Egypt
ritual ceremony enacted in the same way time after time
artisan skilled workers who practice a trade or handicraft
Hatshepsut one of the few women to rule EgyptWhen her husband died, Thutmose II, her son was to young to rule. Hatshepsut made herself Egypt's new pharaoh.
Ramses II Warrior King who ruled about 200 years after Hatshepsut.
How did pharaohs gain authority over the people? 1. They based there authority on Egyptian religious beliefs. Egyptians believed god controled everthing, because a pharaoh controled Egypt they saw the king as god-king.2. Good government - enforced laws, collected taxs, organized building projects
cobra stood for the pharaoh's power to protect Egypt from its enemies
crook shepherd's stick, meant that the pharaoh would look after his people like a shepard looked after his sheep
flail whip, showed that the phraoh was the heavenly guardian of his people
Order of Egyptian Society Pharaoh; Nobles, Priests, Officials; Scribes; Merchants, Artisans; Farmers, Servants, Slaves.
What did the nobles, priests, and officials do? they helped the pharaoh govern Egypt.
Soldiers Helped govern by fighting battles for the rulers.
scribes kept records for the government and the temples.
Did people of Egyptian society willing comply? Yes, the people believed it was a form of religous devotion. They believed that if they helped the god-king in life they would be rewarded after death.
Name two of the most powerful pharaohs? Queen Hatshepsut and Ramses II
Queen Hatshepsut To gain the support of the people she carried out all of the rituals expected of a king. She dressed as a king. She wore a false beard as a symbol of the pharaohs power.
Queen Hatsheput Helped expand Egypt's wealth and power through trade. Her rule was peaceful.
Warrior King Ramses II Hatsheput ruled through trade, Ramses through war.
Name the temple built by Ramses II Abu SimbelFour massive statues of Ramses guard either side of the entrance.
Who was egypt's greates builder? Ramses IIDuring his 60 year reign he built more monuments than any other pharaoh.
How did Egypt's pharaohs gain authority needed to rule? 1. Pharaohs claimed to be god-like.2. Government strong enough to carry out orders.
commerce buying and selling of goods and services
luxery goods goods that they did not need, but that made life more enjoyable in some ways.
expedition journey or trip taken for a special purpose
Snefru pharaoh who ordered expeditions to the eastern Mediterranean Sea.Traded up the Nile into Nubia and returned with 7,000 slaves and 200,000 head of cattle.
Nubia supplied Egypt with animal skins, ivory, ostrich feathers, and beatiful woods. Nubia traded gold from its desert mines for Egyptian wheat.
Kush After Egypt conquered most of Nubia, they called the region Kush.
tribute payment made by a conquered people to a stronger power.
What tribute payments did Nubia make to the pharaohs? gold, cattle, slaves, ostrich feathers, and ivory.
What did Nubians become in Egyptian society? They became high government officials.
Why did Egypt want to control Nubia? Because of Nubia's location. Nubia controlled commerce between central Farica and Egypt.
Who is Piye? Ruler of Kush who expanded the Kushite empire by conquering one Egyptian city after another.
What city refused to surrender to Piye? Hermopolis refused to surrender for months against Piye's army. When the city's food supply ran out the people began to starve. Only then did they surrender. When the city fell, Piye declared himself the new pharaoh of a united Egypt and Kush.
Why did Kush fall from power? They tried to expand their power. They went to war with the Assyrians and lost.
Meroe City located on trade routes from Central Africa. A city that thrived as a center of trade and culture. Capital of Kush.
underworld the world of the dead
afterlife life after death
mummy body preserved by a special process
polytheism belief in many gods
Did Egyptians believe that gods share qualities with animals? Yes, the Egyptian's worshipped hundreds of gods, many of whom were associated with animals.
What was the most important god to the Egyptians? Amon-Re, the sun god.
Name three other popular Egyptian gods. Osiris, Isis and Horus
Who was the god of the underworld? Osiris
How was Osiris killed? killed and chopped into pieces by a rival god named Seth.
Who was Isis? The wife of Osiris, the mother goddess of Egypt. She found pieces of Osiris's body and brought him back to life. She represented love, caring, and protection.
Who did the Egyptians look to for protection in life and death? Isis
Who was Horus? The son of Isis and Osiris.Horus defeated Seth.He united the two lands of Egypt.
Did Egyptians believe in the afterlife? Yes
How did Egyptians prepare for the afterlife? Live well.Preserving their bodies.
Who decided if you entered the afterlife? Osiris
How many spirits did the Egyptians believe a person had? Two
Name the two spirits. Ka: life force;and Ba:the soul.The Ka and the Ba had to be united with the body after death.
Where were poor people buried? In the desert, where the hot sand quickly dried out their bodies.
Who had their bodies made into mummies. The wealthy
Describe how most Egyptians lived? They built houses with bricks made from Nile mud.Towns were set back from the river or in the desert. Flat roofs were people slept at night. Thick walls and small windows kept the sun out.
How did the Egyptians eat? They usually ate well. They ate with their fingers. Barley and wheat were their most important foods. They also ate vegitables and fruits that grew along the Nile. Fish from the Nile.
Did Egyptians eat meat? Ate meat only on special occations. Raised very few animals to use the land for farming instead of grazing.
What does nefer mean? beautiful
Imhotep architect who designed a new kind of tomb, with six stone mounds, one on top of the other. Step Pyramid.
sculpture statute made of clay, stone, or other matrials
anatomy study of the body and its organs
papyrus reed that grows along the Nile. The word paper comes from papyrus.
Why did the Egyptians build temples? Built templses for their gods and tombs for their pharaohs. They were built of mud or stone.
What were early tombs like? underground chambers or rooms. Chamber contained items that the ruler might want in the afterlife.
What is the Great Sphinx? The Great Sphinx, with a lion's body and a king's head, rises between two pyramids in Giza.
How do we know about Egyptian life? We know much about Egyptian life from the paintings found on the walls of tombs.
Why were the tombs painted? They were painted to provide the person buried in the tomb with all the objects and pleasures shown on the walls.
What happened if a peron's mummy was destroyed? A statute could replace it as a home for the dead person's spirit.
How did Egyptians learn about human anatomy? From working with mummies.
Who created the first accurate calandar. The Egyptians created the first accurate calendar. They first measured time by cycles of the mon. The result was a lunar, or moon-based, calendar of about 360 days.
Nilometers a form of calendar based on the height of the Nile's flooding.
When did the Egyptians create writing? Around 3000 BC
Who invested the first paper? Egyptians, the paper was made of papyrus. Paper was easier to transport and lasted longer than tablets.
Created by: Hillcrest