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Chp 10-Nervous Sys 1

Nerves: Davi-Ellen Chabner The Language of Medicine 8th Edition

Microscopic, individual nerve cell: Neuron
Macroscopic bundles of neurons: Nerves
Nerves carry _________ messages. Electrical
Stimuli (External & Internal) activate cell membranes of nerve cells in order to... release stored electrical energy within the cells.
Energy released & passed through the length of the nerve cell is called the Nervous impulse.
External receptor are _____ organs. Sense
Two major divisions of nervous system: Central Nervous System (CNS) & Peripheral Nervous System.
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of these four things: Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, plexuses & peripheral nerves throughout the body.
The CNS consists of these two things: Brain & spinal cord.
Cranial nerves carry impulses between the: Brain and head/neck. Except the 10th (vagus) nerve.
The 10th cranial nerve is called ______ & carries messages to and from the _______, _____, & _____. Vagus nerve. Mesagges between neck, chest, & abdomen.
Spinal nerves carry messages between the ________ and the _____, _____, & _____. Spinal cord, chest, abdomen, extremities.
Cranial nerves 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 1.Olfactory (smell) 2.Optic (vision)3. Oculomotor (eye movement) 4. Abducens (em) 6. Trochlear (em).
Cranial nerves 5, 7, 8 5. Trigeminal (forehead/scalp sensation, cheek sensation, chewing) 7. Facial (face/scalp movement, taste, ear sensation) 8. Vestibulocochlear (hearing, balance).
Cranial nerves 9, 11, 12 Glossopharyngeal (tongue/throat sensation, throat movement), Accessory (swallowing, head/shoulder movement), Hypoglossal (speech, swallowing).
Carry messages TO the brain: _____ nerves. Sensory / afferent
Carry messages FROM the brain: _____ nerves. Motor / efferent
Mixed nerves carry both _____ & _____ fibers. Sensory & motor
Sense receptors: Sight (eye), hearing/balance (ear), smell (olfactory.
Cranial/spinal nerves are mainly ________, involving sensations of ____(5). Voluntary; smell, taste, sight, hearing, muscle movement.
Peripheral nerves are primarily _____, part of the ________ nervous system. Involuntary, autonomic.
Efferent nerves carry messages away from the CNS to the glands, heart, blood vessels, & involuntary muscles found in the walls of tubes (intestines, hollow organs).
Autonomic nerves can be _____ nerves or _____ nerves. Sympathetic, parasympathetic.
Sympathetic nerves _____ the body. Heart rate is ________, Airways are _____Blood pressure is _____Adrenal glands stimulate _____ Intestinal processes _____ Stimulate. Heart rate is increased, Airways are dilated to allow more O2,Blood pressure is increased,Adrenal glands stimulate epinephrine (adrenaline), Intestinal processes inhibited, slowing digestion.
Parasympathetic nerves ________ the sympatheitc nerves. Heart rate is ____, Contract ____, BP is ____, stimulate peristalsis to _____, secretions are ____: Balance. Heart rate is slowed, Contract pupils, lower BP, stimulate peristalsis to clear the rectum, increase secretions like saliva.
Plexus Large network of nerves in the PNS.
Plexus examples are: Cervical (neck), Brachial (arm), Lumbosacral (back).
The peripheral nervous system includes: Cranial nerves (12 pair); Spinal nerves (31 pair); Autonomic nerves: Parasympathetic nerves, Sympathetic nerves
Nerve impulse pathway: Stimulus from dendrites, cell body (containing cell nucleus), ganglion, axon, leaves cell via terminal end fibers, jumps the synapse to the next neuron.
Branching fibers of neuron: Dendrites
Ganglia (pl); ganglion (s) Small collections of nerve cell bodies outside the brain/spinal cord.
Axons can be covered with a: myelin sheath.
Myelin sheath are a _____ tissue, and appear _____ (color). Fatty, white.
Parts of brain & spinal cord appear _____ because they are not covered by a _____ _____. Gray, myelin sheath.
To jump a synapse, a _____ substance, called a _____, is released by the axon it is traveling (from/to)? chemical, neurotransmitter, traveling from.
Examples of neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline), dopamine, seratonin, endorphins.
Macroscopic structure in the nervous system, can be seen by the naked eye: Nerve.
A nerve consists of: A bundle of dendrites & axons, traveling together like rope.
_____ nerves from the peripheral nervous system carry impulses from the _____ organs to the _____ & _____. Examples are __(4). Sensory/afferent, sense, brain, spinal cord. Skin, eye, ear, nose.
_____ nerves travel from the CNS to organs to produce a _____; organs such as muscles and glands. Motor/efferent, response.
The essential work of the nervous system is done by the _____ & _____ by conducting impulses through the body; this is called the _____ tissue. Neruons, nerves; parenchymal.
The _____ tissue of the nervous system has several types of specialized cells, collectively called the _____. Stromal; glia/neuroglia.
The stromal tissues of the nervous system perform what functions? Supportive, protective, connective tissue cells. Holds the nervous system together, wards of infection & injury via phagocytosis.
Engulfing waste products & foreign material is called: Phagocytosis
Glial cells do/do not transmit impluses. Do not transmit impulses.
There are far more neurons than glial cells, or more glial cells than neurons? More glial cells.
Glial cells can/can not reproduce. Can reproduce.
Four types of supporting/glial (neuroglial) cells are: Astrocytes (astroglial cells), Microglial cells, Oligodendroglial cells (oligodendrocytes), & Ependymal cells.
_____ (type of glial cells): Star like, transport water & salts between capillaries & neurons. Astrocytes / astroglial cells. (astr/o = star).
_____ (type of glial cells): Small cells with many branching processes. As phagocytes, they protect neurons in response to inflammation. Microglial cells.
_____ (type of glial cells): Few (scanty) dendrites - form the myelin sheath. Oligodendrocytes / oligodendroglial cells.
_____ (type of glial cells): Line membranes within the brain & spinal cord where CSF circulates. Ependymal cells (ependyma = upper garment).
The protective barrier betweenthe blood and brain cells is called the: Blood-brain barrier.
Associated with blood vessels & regulate passage of potentially harmful substances from the blood in the nerve cells of the brain. Glial cells, especiall astrocytes.
Neurotransmitters are stored in _____ in the terminal end fibers of _____. Vessicles, axons.
Neurotransmitters are picked up by receptors on the _____, and activity is ended by _____ when they have finished their jobs. Dendrites, inactivators.
Created by: bethybb