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Chapter 9

TermDefinition
Industrial Revolution thorough transformation of economic life that began in Europe but grew to global dimensions
Steam Engine The great breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution, the coal-fired steam engine provided an almost limitless source of power and could be used to drive any number of machines as well as locomotives and ships
Anthropocene Era A recently coined term denoting the “age of man,” in general since the Industrial Revolution and more specifically since the mid-twentieth century.
British Textile Industry The site of the initial technological breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century Britain, where multiple innovations transformed cotton textile production, resulting in an enormous increase in output.
British Aristocracy Individual landowning aristocrats, long the dominant class in Britain, suffered little in material terms from the Industrial Revolution. declined as a result of the Industrial Revolution, as have large landowners in every industrial society
Middle-Class Society British social stratum developed in the nineteenth century, composed of small businessmen, doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, and other professionals required in an industrial society
Reform Bill of 1832 broadened the right to vote to many men of the middle class, but not to middle-class women
Ideology of Domesticity A set of ideas and values that defined the ideal role of middle-class women in nineteenth-century Europe, focusing their activity on homemaking, child rearing, charitable endeavors, and “refined” activities as the proper sphere for women.
Lower-Middle Class Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like;
Laboring Classes The majority of Britain’s nineteenth-century population, which included manual workers in the mines, ports, factories, construction sites, workshops, and farms of Britain’s industrializing and urbanizing society
Karl Marx The most influential proponent of socialism, Marx was a German expatriate in England who advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future.
Labour Party British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.
Luddite 19th-century labor movement that railed against the ways that mechanized manufactures and their unskilled laborers undermined the skilled craftsmen of the day.
“Culture of Consumption” A culture of leisure and consumption that developed during the past century or so in tandem with global economic growth and an enlarged middle class; emerged first in the Western world and later elsewhere
Socialism in the U.S. Socialism, however, came to be defined as fundamentally “un-American” in a country that so valued individualism and so feared “big government.”
Progressives Followers of an American political movement (progressivism) in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures such as wages-and-hours legislation to correct the ills of industrialization.
Crimean War 1853 to 1856 in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and Sardinia. The immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire.
Russian Revolution of 1905 Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
Caudillos Military strongmen who seized control of a government in nineteenth-century Latin America, and were frequently replaced
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna a Mexican politician and general. His influence on post-independence Mexican politics and government in the first half of the nineteenth century is such that historians of Mexico often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna".
Latin American Export Boom Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping
Guano Seabird excrement
Porfirio Diaz most notable for his service in the struggle against the French.
Poncho Villa a general in the Mexican Revolution. He was a key figure in the revolutionary violence that forced out President Porfirio Díaz and brought Francisco I. Madero to power in 1911.
Emiliano Zapata Mexican revolutionary. He was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910–1920, the main leader of the people's revolution in the Mexican state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.
Mexico Revolution Long and bloody war (1910–1920) in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Díaz and create a new, much more democratic political order.
Dependent Development Term used to describe Latin America’s economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions; also viewed as a new form of colonialism.
United Fruit Company Allied with large landowners and compliant politicians, the company pressured the governments of these “banana republics” to maintain conditions favorable to U.S. business
Created by: Zining Cheng
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