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Phlebotomy Chap 6

Chapter 6 CNM Circulatory System

QuestionAnswer
The Heart A major structure of the circulatory system, it circulates blood throughout the body
The blood flow Refer to diagram that has a representation of the vascular flow
Heart Structure Layers of the heart (Epicardium,, Myocardium, Endocardium); Heart chambers (Atria- upper chambers & Ventricles - lower chambers; Valves (Atrioventricular valves entrance to the ventricles), Coronary arteries.
Epicardium Thin outer layer
Myocardium Middle muscle layer
Endocardium Inner layer lining the circulatory system
Heart Chamber Right Atrium Receives deoxygenated blood from the body via both the superior and inferior vena cava
Heart Chamber Right Ventricle Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps to the lungs through the pulmonary artery
Heart Chamber Left Atrium Recieves oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein
Heart Chamber Left Ventricle Receives blood from the left atrium and pumps to the aorta
Atrioventricular valves entrance to the ventricles Tricuspid and Bicuspid or Mitral
Coronary arteries Branch of the aorta to feed the heart; Right and left coronary arteries
Heart Function Cardiac Cycle; Electrical conduction system; Origin of the heart beat;Heart rate and cardiac output; Pulse; Blood pressure
Cardiac Cycle Systole - Contracting phase (120 mm Hg); Diastole - Relaxing Phase (80 mm Hg)
Systole Contracting phase (120 mm Hg)
Diastole Relaxing Phase (80 mm Hg)
Electrical Conduction System SA node or pacemaker, AV node, AV bundle Purkinje fibers
SA node or pacemaker Initiating impulse
AV node Picks up the impulse
AV bundle Relays impulse
Purkinje Fibers Relays impulse throughout the ventricular muscle
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) Actual record of the electrical currents corresponding to each event in heart muscle contraction; recording called ECG tracing; Useful in diagnosing heart muscle damage
ECG P wave (atrial depolarization),QRS wave Ventricular depolarization,T wave Ventricular Repolarization
Origin of the heart beat Origin of the heart beat "Lubb", "Dupp" and Murmurs.
"Lubb" AV valves closing (bicuspid and tricuspid)
"Dupp" Semilunar valves closing (pulmonary & aortic)
Murmurs Faulty valves action
Heart Rate and Cardiac Output Number of heartbeats/minute; Normal = 72/minute; Volume/1 minute = 5 liters cardiac output
Pulse Easily felt by compressing radial artery; Rate same as heart rate normally
Blood Pressure Measure of force exerted by blood on walls of vessels; Measure in a large artery by use of a sphygmomanometer
Heart Disorders Angina Pecotoris; Aortic Stenosis; Bacterial endocarditis, Congestive heart failure, Myocardial infarction (MI); Pericarditis
Heart Dianostic Test ABG's, Enzymes (AST, CK, CK-MB isoenzymes, LD isoenzyme), Digoxin, ECG, Microbial cultures, Myoglobin, Potassium, Triglycerides, Troponin T
Define the Vascular System A closed system by which blood is circulated to all parts of the body
What are the two division of circulation and its structures of the Vascular System. The two division are Pulmonary & Systemic; The two structures are heart and blood vessesls
Pulmonary Carries blood from the heart to the lungs and reoxygenates the blood
Systemic Carries oxygenated blood along with nutrients to all cells of the body
Blood vessels Arteries, Veins, Capillaries
Blood vessel structure and Lumen Layers; Valves
Blood vessel-Arteries Carry blood away from the heart to the body; Under pressure from ventricular contractions; Pulse distinguishes arteries from veins when felt; Do not have valves
Blood vessel-Veins Return Blood to the heart; Walls are thinner and can callapse; Have valves which assist in the return of the blood to the heart (see picture slide 21)
Blood vessel-Capillaries Microscopic (one cell thick), Connect veins & arteries, Blood is mixture of venous and arterial blood, Thin wall allows the exchange of oxygen and nutrients for carbon dioxide and waste.
Vascular anatomy of the ARM. Major veins in the antecubital fossa Medial cubital vein (first choice, well anchored), Cephalic vein (Second choice, fairly well anchored), Basillic vein (Third choice, more painful, above brachial and next to median cubital nerve)
Arteries Subject to Puncture Arterial Puncture, Radial, Brachial, Femoral
Arterial Puncture More painful and hazardous, Requires special training to perform
Radial Puncture wrist area
Brachial Antecubital fossa, Cutaneous nerve lies along same path
Femoral Groin area
Vascular System Disorders Aneurysm, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Embolism, Hemmorrhoids, Phlebitis, Thrombophlebitis, Varicose veins
Diagnostic Tests Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation screen (DIC), Cholesterol (CHOL), Prothrombin (PT), Partial thromboplastin time (PTT), Triglycerides (TRIG), CBC, Platelet Count ( PLT CT)
The Blood Referred to as "the river of life," it flows throughout the circulatory system delivering nutrients and oxygen and transport waste products from the cells.
Blood composition Plasma, Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leukocytes (whitle blood cells)
Plasma The liquid portion of the blood that has not clotted; 90% H2O and 10% dissolved substances (Albumin, Abs, fibrinogen)(Nutrients include CHO and Fat) (Minerals include Na, K, Ca) (Gases include O2 and CO2) (Other subtances such as vitamins, hormones, urea.
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) Life span = 120 days; Anuclear, biconcave disks, intravascular function
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Formed in bone marrow and lymphatic tissue; Extravascular function; Only hours in bloodstream, much longer in tissues; Two types of leukocytes (Granulocytes and Agranulocytes)
Leukocytes - Granulocytes Neutrophils (Both red and blue granules not very darkly stained), Eosinophils(Dark red granules), Basophils (Dark purple graBloodnules)
Leukocytes - Agranulocytes Monocytes and Lymhocytes
Thromboyctes - Platelets Essential to coagulation; Life span = 10 days
Blood Disorders Anemia, Leukemia, Leukocytosis, Leukopenia,Polycythemia, Thrombocytosis, Thrombocytopenia
Blood Type Inherited and determined by antigen on RBC; Antibody formed by reaction to the opposite blood-type antigen; Transfusion reaction due to transfusion error (Agglutination, Lysis)
ABO Blood Group System A, B, AB, O
A Blood Type: What is the RBC Antigen and Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins) RBC Antigen = A; Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins)= Anti-B
B Blood Type; What is the RBC Antigen and Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins) RBC Antigen = B; Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins) = Anti-A
AB Blood Type; What is the RBC Antigen and Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins) RBC Antigen = AB; Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins)= Neither Anti-A ot Anti-B
O Blood Type; What is the RBC Antigen and Plasma Antibodies (Agglutinins)
Created by: alwayslearning