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Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer, first European to sail directly to India.
Prester John mysterious Christian monarch, known as Prester John, ruled somewhere in Asia or Africa.
India Ocean Commercial NEtwork The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered the Indian Ocean (including East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia); the network was transformed as Europeans entered it in the centuries following 1500.
Mombasa-Hormuz-Goa-Macao military advantage enabled the Portuguese to quickly establish fortified bases at several key locations within the Indian Ocean world
Trading Post Empire Form of imperial dominance based on control of trade through military power rather than on control of peoples or territories.
Cartaz Pass to pay duties of 6 to 10 percent on merchant cargoes to Portuguese.
Philippines An archipelago of Pacific islands colonized by Spain in a relatively bloodless process that extended for the century or so after 1565, a process accompanied by a major effort at evangelization
Manila The capital of the colonial Philippines, which by 1600 had become a flourishing and culturally diverse city; the site of violent clashes between the Spanish and Chinese.
British East India Company Private trading company chartered by the English around 1600, mainly focused on India; it was given a monopoly on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
Dutch East India Company Private trading company chartered by the Netherlands around 1600, mainly focused on Indonesia; it was given a monopoly on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
BOmbay-Calcutta-Madrasa Trade cities in South Asia under control of Great Britain.
Daimyo endemic conflict among numerous feudal lords
Samurai Warriors
Shogun supreme military commander known as the shogun, who hailed from the Tokugawa clan.
Tokugawa Shogunate Japanese authorities largely closed their country off from the emerging world of European commerce, although they maintained their trading ties to China, Korea, and Southeast Asia.
Silver Drain Term often used to describe Europe pay for the luxury products of the East, a process exacerbated by the fact that Europe had few trade goods that were desirable in Eastern markets; eventually, the bulk of the world’s silver supply made its way to China.
Pieces of Eight The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight, is a silver coin of approximately 38 mm diameter worth eight Spanish reales. It was minted in the Spanish Empire following a monetary reform in 1497.
Potosi City relied on silver mining.
Fur Trade A global industry in which French, British, and Dutch traders exported fur from North America to Europe, using Native American labor and with great environmental cost to the Americas.
Soft Gold Pelts of fur-bearing animals.
Transatlantic Slave System Between 1500 and 1866, this trade in human beings took an estimated 12.5 million people from African societies, shipped them across the Atlantic in the Middle Passage, and deposited some 10.7 million of them in the Americas as slaves
Middle Passage the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies.
African Diaspora The global spread of African peoples via the slave trade.
British Royal Africa Company English mercantile (trading) company set up in 1660 by the royal Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.
Maroon Societies Free communities of former slaves in remote regions of South America and the Caribbean; the largest such settlement was Palmares in Brazil, which housed 10,000 or more people for most of the seventeenth century.
Palmares Free communities of former slaves in remote regions of South America and the Caribbean; the largest such settlement was Palmares in Brazil, which housed 10,000 or more people for most of the seventeenth century.
Maize and Manioc (Cassava) spread widely in the Eastern Hemisphere, where they provided the nutritional foundation for the population growth that became everywhere a hallmark of the modern era
Cowrie Shells Money in West Africa
Signares The small number of African women who were able to exercise power and accumulate wealth through marriage to European traders.
Created by: Zining Cheng
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