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Phlebotomy Chap 5

Chapter 5 CNM Human Anatomy and Physiology Review

Anatomy Structural Composition
Physiology Function
Anatomic Position Standing erect, Arms at the side, Eyes and palms facing forward
Prone Lying face down, Hand palm down
Pronation The act of turning face or palm down
Supine Lying on the back, face up
Supination The act of turning face or palm up
What are the four body planes discussed in class? Frontal, Sagittal, Midsaggittal, Transverse
Frontal means what? Vertical front and back portions
Saggittal means what? Vertical right and left portions
Midsaggittal means what? Equal vertical right and left portions
Transverse means what? Horizontal upper and lower portions
What are some directional terms? Anterior (Ventral), External (Superficial), Meidal, Proximal, Superior (cranial), Posterior (dorsal), Internal (deep), Lateral, Distal, Inferior (Caudal).
Anterior (Ventral) Pertaining to or referring to the front of the body; also call ventral
External (Superficial) On or near the surface of the body; also called superficial
Medial Toward the midline or middle
Proximal Nearest to the center of the body or point of attachment
Superior (Cranial) Higher, above or toward the head; also called cranial
Posterior (Dorsal) Refers to the back; also called dorsal
Internal (Deep) Within or near the center fo the body; also called deep
Lateral Toward the side
Distal Farthest from the center of the body, origin, or point of attachment
Inferior (Caudal) Beneath, lower, or away from the head; also called caudal
What are the two body cavities? Dorsal and ventral
What are the two Dorsal cavities Cranial and Spinal
What are the three ventral cavities Thoracic & abdominal & Pelvic
Homeostasis Balanced or steady state
What are the two types of Metabolism Catabolism and Anabolism
Catabolism Complex to simple
Anabolism Simple to complex
Cells Basic structural units of all life
Tissue Groups of similar cells working together
Organs Structure of tissues that function together
What are the 10 body system discussed in class? Skeletal, Muscular, Reproductive, Digestive, Endocrine, Nervous, Urinary, Integumentary, Repiratory, Circulatory
Skeletal System Function (5) Support; Protection (EX: The skull protects the brain, and the ribs protect the heart and lungs; Movement and Leverage; Hemopoiesis(Blood cell formation); Calcium Storage
Skeletal System structures 1. Bones(Flat bones[Rib and skull], Irregular bones[Vertebrae-backbone], Long Bones[Femur-leg bone], Short bones [Carpals-wrist bones] 2.Joints 3. Connective Tissue (Cartilage)
Key point to skeletal system is what? Bones important to phlebotomy are the calcaneus (heel bone) and phalanx (finger) bone)
Skeletal System Disorder (7) Arthritis, Bursitis, Gout, Osteomyelitis, Osteochondritis, Osteoporosis, Rickets, Tumors.
Arthritis Joint Inflammation
Bursitis Inflammation of the Bursa (Fluid filled sac)
Gout Joint Disorder due to faulty uric acid metabolism
Osteomyelitis Bone inflammation
Osteochondritis Inflammation of the bone and cartilage
Osteoporosis Loss of Bone density
Rickets Abnormal bone formation due to lack of vitamin D
Tumors Abnormal bone growth
Skeletal System Tests (8) Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP); Calcium (Ca++); CBC; ESR; Phosphorus; Synovial fluid analysis; Uric Acid; Vitamin D.
Muscular System Functions Movement, Posture, Heat Production, Organ function, Blood circulation
What are the Muscular System Structue (Muscle Types) Skeletal, Viseral, Cardiac
The Muscular System Structure classified by? Location, Microscopic structure, Nervous Cotrol
Classify Skeletal Muscle Location - attached to bones; Microscopic structure - Striated (layered or banded; Nervous - Voluntary (Conscious).
Classify Viseral Muscle Location - Line arteries, veins, and organs; Microscopic structure - Nonstriated (smooth); Nervous Control-Involuntary (unconscious).
Classify Cardiac Muscle Location - Forms the wall of the heart; Microscopic structure - Special interwoven striated; Nervous Control - involuntary (unconscious).
What are the four Muscular System Disroders discussed in class? Atrophy; Muscular dystrophy; Myalgia; Tendinitis
Atrophy Wasting
Muscular dystrophy Genetic muscle-wasting disease
Myalgia Muscle Pain
Tendinitis Tendon inflammation
Muscular System Test (7) Autoimmune antibodies; Creatine phosphokinase (CPK/CK); Lactic Acid; Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH); Myoglobin; Electromyograph.y; Biopsy
Integumentary System Function (5) Protection (integument means covering or skin); Temperature regulation; Elimination of wastes; Reception of stimuli; Vitamin D manufacture
Integumentary System Structures Two catagory and subcatgory to the two. Skin (Layers of the skin)= Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous; and Associated structures = Oil and sweat glands, hair and nails, Blood vessels, Nerves and sensory organs.
Integumentary System Structures - Skin (Layers of the skin) Epidermis Outermost &thinnest skin layer; Made of epithelial cells (stratified [layered]& keratinized[hardened]; Contains stratum germinativum, only layer with living cells, only layer where mitosis occurs,produces malanin; Described as avascular(no blood vessals)
Integumentary System Structures - Skin (Layers of the skin)Dermis (Corium or true skin) Inner, thickest layer of the skin - made up of elastic, fibrous connective tissue; Dermal structures - Papillary Dermis {Junction of the dermis &epidermis; elevations &depressions (papillae) form fingerprints; Blood &lymph vessels; Glands &hair follicle}
Integumentary System Structures - Skin (Layers of the skin)Subcutaneous (under the skin) Connective tissue and Adipose tissue; Connects skin to muscles and bone
Major Structure of the skin (5) Arrector Pili, Hair Follicles, Nails, Sebaceous Glands, Sudoriferous glands
Arrector Pili Tiny muscles attached to hair follicles; Cause "goose bumps"
Hair Follicles Sheath from which hair develops
Nails Nonliving Keratin material
Sebaceous Glands Oil glands attached to hair follicles; Secrete sebum to help lubricate the skin
Sudoriferous Glands Sweat Glands
Integumentary System Disorder (10) Acne, Caner, Dermatitis, Fungal Infections, Herpes, Impetigo, Keloid, Pedicuious, Pruritis, Psoriasis
Acne Inflamed Oil Glands
Cancer Basal cell, squamous, or melanoma,
Fungal Infection i.e., tinea and ringworms
Herpes Cold sores
Impetigo Staph or Strep infection
Keloid Fibrous Scar tissue
Pediculous Lice
Pruritus Itching
Psoriasis Chronic Skin disease
Integumentary Systems tests Biopsy, Microbial Culture, Skin scraping for fungal culture, Skin scraping for KOH (potassium hydroxide) perparation, Tissue cultures
Integumentary Systems tests Biopsy, Microbial Culture, Skin scraping for fungal culture, Skin scraping for KOH (potassium hydroxide) preparation, Tissue cultures
What is the function of the Nervous System? Controls and coordinates body system activities (Electrical impulses and chemeical subtances)
What is the fundamental unit of the Nervous system? Neuron
What are the functional divisions of the Nervous System? Somatic and Autonomic
What are the structural divisions of the Nervous system? Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central Nervous System (CNS) 1. Command Center (Interprets information and Dictates Response). 2. Consists of brain and spinal cord [(Enclosed/protected by fluid CSF - Fluid obtained through lumbar puncture) and (Space covered by meninges)]
Peripheral Nervous System Connects CNS to every part of the body; Functional Division = Sensory (Afferent) Nerves and Motor (Efferent) Nerves
Sensory (Afferent) Nerves Impulse goes to or from? Carry impulses to CNS
Motor (Efferent) Nerves Impulse goes to or from? Carry impulses from CNS
Motor (Efferent) Nerves - What are the two divisions? Somatic (voluntary) nervous system and Autonomic (involuntary) nervous system (ANS)
What are the nine Nervous System Disorders discussed in lecture? Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Encephalitis, Epilepsy,Hydrocephalus, Meningitis, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Neuralgia, Parkinson's Disease, Shingles
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Motor Nerve Disorder
Encephalitis Brain Inflammation
Epilepsy Seizure Disorder
Hydrocephalus CSF building in the brain
Meningitis Inflammation of meninges
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Myelin Sheath disorder
Neuralgia Nerve pain
Parkinson's Disease Nervous Disorder
Shingles Herpes along a nerve
Nervous System Tests Acetycholine; Cholinesterase; Dilantin; Electroencephalogram (EEG); Serotonin; CSF analysis (Cell count, Glucose, Protein, Culture)
Endocrine System Structures secretes hormones that affect what (6)? Metabolism, Growth and development, Reproduction, Personality, Reaction to stress, Resistance to disease.
Endocrine System Structures (Glands) Pituitary, Thyroid, Pineal, Adrenal
Endocrine System Structures [Organs and structures with endocrine function (3)] Ovaries, Testes, Islet of Langerhans-in pancreas
Pituitary Gland (Master Gland) Master Gland; Located in the brain; Secretes hormones that control other glands. These hormones include Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Antidiuretic hormone(ADH),Follicle-Stimulating hormone(FSH),Growth Hormone (GH),Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal glands
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Decreases urine production
Follicle-Stimulating hormone(FSH) Affects the ovaries
Growth Hormone (GH) Regulates growth
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates the hormone
Pineal Located behind the pituitary; Function not fully understood; Secretes melatonin = Inhibited by light/enhanced by dark and plays role in diurnal rhythms.
Thyroid Located in the throat near the larynx, Hormones production required iodine, Secretes (Calcitonin, Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4)
Calcitonin Regulates calcium levels
Triiodothyronine (T3) Increases metabolic rate
Thyroxine (T4) Increase metabolic rate
Parathyroids (4) Located behind the thyroid (2 on each side), Secretes parathyroid hormones (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Thymus Located in the chest behind the sternum; Secretes thymosin
Thymosin Required for maturation of T lymphocytes and development of immunity
Adrenals (2) One located on top of each kidney; Secrete Epinephrine and Norepinephrine, Cortisol, Aldosterone.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Also called adrenaline and noradrenaline; Increase blood pressure, heart activity, glucose; Called "fight or flight" hormones; Helps kidneys regulates sodium and potassium
Cortisol Suppresses inflammation
Islet of Langerhans in the pancreas Secretes insulin and glucagon (regulates glucose levels)
Testes Secretes Testosterone (Controls male reproductive system and development of male sexual characteristics)
Ovaries Secretes estrogen (Controls female reproductive system and development of female characteristics); Secretes Progesterone (Prepares the body for pregnacy)
Heart B-type Natriuetic peptide (BNP)
Stomach Lining Secretes a digestive hormone
Placenta Secretes hormone that affect pregnacy; Cells that form the placenta secrete HCG
Kidneys Secretes renin to increase blood pressure; secretes erythropoietin to increase RBC
Endocrine System Disorders Hypersecretion (Overproduction of hormone); Hyposecretion (Underproduction of hormone; ofen related to benigh tumors
Pituitary Disorders (4) Acromegaly, Diabetes Insipidus, Dwarfism, Gigantism
Acromegaly Overgrowth of bones in hands, face and feet from excess GH in adulthood
Diabetes Insipidus Increased thirst and urine production from too little ADH (also called vasopressin)
Vosopressin ADH
Gigantism Excessive growth from excess GH
Thyroid Disorders Congenital hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Goiter, Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease), Hypothyroidism, Myxedema (hypothyroid syndrome)
Congenital hypothyroidism Low thyroid acitivity in a new born
Cretinism Abnormal development in untreated hypthyroidism
Goiter Enlarged thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) Condition resulting from hypersecretion of the thyroid
Hypothyroidism Condition resulting from decreased thyroid secretion
Myxedema(hypothyroid syndrome) Condition resulting from decreased thyroid functioning
Parathyroid Disorders Hypersecretion Disorders (kidney stones, Bone destruction); Hyposecretion Disorders (Muscle spasms, Convulsions)
Adrenal Disorders Addison's disease, Aldosteronism and Cushing Syndrome
Pancreatic Disorder Diabetes Mellitus,Diabetes Mellitus type I(Insulin Depenedent), Diabetes Mellitus type II (non-insulin dependent), Hyperinsulinism, Hypoglycemia
Diabetes Mellitus Result from insuling deficiency
Diabetes Mellitus type I(Insulin Depenedent) Results from inability to produce insulin
Diabetes Mellitus type II (non-insulin dependent Results form too little insulin or impaired insulin use
Hyperinsulinism Exessive insulin secretions or insulin overdose
Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar from hyperinsulinism
Endocrine System Tests (12) Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), Aldosterone, Antidiuretic hormone(ADH), Cortisol, Erythropoietin, Glucagon, Glucose Tolerance Test(GTT), Glycosylated hemoglobin(HgbA1C), Growth hormone, Insulin level, Plasma Renin, Thyroid function studies
Thyroid function studies T3, T4,TSH,FT3,FT4
Digestive Systems Functions Take in food, Break it down to a form that can be absorbed, Eliminate waste products of digestion
Digestive Systems Structures -Gastrointestinal (GI) tract Mouth, Pharynx, Throat, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large intestine
Digestive Systems Structures - Accessory Organs Lips, Teeth, Tongue, Salivary glands, Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder
Liver Glycogen storage, Protein catabolism, Detoxification, Secrete bile
Gallbladder Concentrating and store bile (for the metabolism of cholestorol)
Pancreas Secrete insulin, Secrete glucagon, produce digestive enzyme (Amylase, Lipase, Trypsin)
Digestive System Disorders Appendicitis, Cholecystitis, Colitis, Diverticulosis, Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, Hepatitis, Pancreatitis, Peritonitis,Ulcer
Appendicitis Inflamed appendix
Cholecystitis Inflamed gallbladder
Colitis Colon inflammation
Diverticulosis Pouches colon wall
Gastritis Inflamed stomach lining
Gastroenteritis Inflamed intestinal tract
Hepatitis Inflamed Liver
Pancreatitis Inflamed pancreas
Peritonitis Inflamed lining of the abdominal cavity
Ulcer Open sore or lesion
Digestive System Tests-Gastrointestinal Fecal fat (feces); Gastric analysis (gastric contents); Occult blood (feces); Ova and parasite (feces); Serum gastrin analysis (blood); Stool analysis (feces)
Digestive System Tests-Accessory organs Ammonia (AMM);Amylase (AMY); Bilirubin (BILI);Carcinoembryonic (CEA); Carotene; Cholesterol(CHOL); CBC; Glucose(GLU); Glucose Tolerance (GTT); Lipase (LIP); Triglycerides (TRIG)
Reproductive Systems Functions Produce gametes or sex cells (Female gametes (ova or eggs), Male gametes (Sperm); Manufacture hormone that regulate the reproductive process.
Reproductive System Structure Female Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix, Vagina, Vulva
Reproductive System Structure Male Testes, Seminal Vesicles, Prostate, Epididymis,Vas deferens, Seminal ducts, Urethra, Penis, Spermatic cords, Scrotum
Reproductive System Disorders Cervical Cancer, Infertility, Ovarian cancer, Overian cyst, Prostate cancer, Sexually transmitted disease (STDS), Uterine cancer
Cervical Cancer Cancer of the cervix
Infertility Lower than normal ability to reproduce
Ovarian cancer Cancer of the ovaries
Overian cyst Usually nonmalignant growth on an ovary
Prostate cancer Cancer of the prostate gland
Sexually transmitted disease (STDS) Syphillis, Gonorrhea, Genital herpes
Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus
Reproductive System Tests Acid Phosphatase, Estrogen, Follicle-stimulating Hormone(FSH),Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG),Luteinizing hormone(LH),Microbiological cultures,PAP smear,Prostate specific antigen(PSA),Rapid plasma reagin(RPR),Testosterone,Viral tissue studies.
Acid Phosphatase prostate cancer
Urinary System Functions (3) Filters and eliminate waste from the blood, Help regulate body fluids (Maintain water and electrolyte balance),Create and eliminate urine.
Urinary System Structures (5) Two kidneys, Two ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra
Kidney Structures Nephron and Gomerulus
Nephron Fundamental unit of kidney (Over a million per kidney)
Glomerulus Structure within the nephron (Tuft of capillaries that filter the blood)
Urinary System Disorders Renal failure, Nephritis, Uremia, Kidney stones, Cystitis, Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Renal failure Several impairment of renal function
Nephritis Inflammation of the kidney
Uremia Building of toxic waste in the blood from impaired kidney function.
Kidney stones Solid formation of crystallized urinary salts
Cystitis Bladder inflammation
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Infection involving the urinary system
Urinary System Tests Albumin(ALB), Ammonnia(AMM), Blood Urea Nitrogen(BUN), Blood Creatinine(Creat), Creatinine clearance, Electrolytes(ELEC), Osmolality(OSMO), Urinalysis(UA), Urine Culture &sensitivity(C&S),Intravenous Pyelography,Renal Biopsy,Nuclear magnetic resource(NMR)
Repiratory System Functions Exchange of gases between the blood and air (Delivers oxygen (O2) to the cells and removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from the cells; Functions with the circulatory system (External repiration and Internal respiration)
External repiration O2 from the air enters teh bloodstream in the lungs; CO2 leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells
Internal respiration O2 leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells; CO2 from the cells enters the bloodstream
Repiratory System Functions - Gas Exchange Transport Normal External Respiration, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport, Partial Pressure of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Normal External Respiration O2 and CO2 diffuse through the walls of alveoli (go from area of higher concentration to lower); O2 goes into the oxygen poor capillaries; CO2 goes from capillaries into CO2 poor alveoli.
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport Hemoglobin and O2 bind to create oxyhemoglobin; Hemoglobin bound to CO2 is carbaminohemoglobin (20% is carried as carbaminohemoglobin and 70% of CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ion (HCO3) and this is what is tested in your serum or plasma)
Partial Pressure of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 1. Pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture (partial pressure of oxygen is PO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide is PCO2). 2. O2 combines with Hgb in the lungs where PO2 is increased and is released in the tissues where PO2 is decreased.
Partial Pressure of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide (Continued) 3. CO2 combines with Hgb in the tissues with PCO2 is released in the lungs where PCO2 is decreased.
Acid-Base (pH) Balance - Acidosis Increased CO2 causes decreased pH; Body responds by increasing respiration (Hyperventilation)
Acid-Base (pH) Balance - Alkalosis Decreased CO2 caused by hyperventilation; Decreased CO2 causes increased pH
Respiratory System Structures provide what? Continuous pathway (tract) for the flow of air to and from the lungs
Respiratory System Structures Nose, Pharynx, Epiglottis, Larynx, Lungs, Trachea, Alveoli
Nose Warms, moistens, and filters incoming air
Pharynx Passageway for both food and air; Connects with the esophagus and the larynx
Epiglottis Covers opening of larynx during swallowing
Lower Trachea Branchs into two Bronchi
Bronchi Divides into two main branches in the lungs (Branches divide into smaller and smaller branches until they reach the terminal bronchioles)
Lungs Right has three lobes and left has two lobes
Terminal Bronchioles Branch into respiratory bronchioles
Respiratory Bronchioles Attach to alveolar ducts; Have a cup shaped outpouching called alveoli
Alveolar Ducts Also have alveoli; Ends of ducts clustered into alveolar sacs
Alveoli Single layer of epithelium covered by thin membrane; Alveolar walls are coated with surfactant (Helps keep them from collapsing)
Repiratory System Disorders Apnea, Asthma, Bronchitis, Pulmonary edema, Dyspnea, Emphysema, Hypoxia, IRDS, Pleurisy, Pnemonia, Pulmonary edema, Tuberculosis (TB), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Rhinitis, Tonsillitis, URI
Apnea Temporary stoppage of breathing
Asthma Difficulty breathing caused by bronchi spasms or swelling
Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchial membrane
Pulmonary edema Fluid in the lungs
Dyspnea Labored breathing
Emphysema Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Hypoxia Oxygen deficiency
IRDS Infant respiratory distress syndrome (due to lack of surfactant)
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural membrane
Pnemonia Lung inflammation
Pulmonary edema Fluid in the lung
Tuberculosis (TB) Infectious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Major cause of infant & child respiratory distress
Rhinitis Inflamed nasal membranes
Tonsillitis Inflamed tonsils
URI Upper Respiratory Infection
Respiratory System Tests Acid-fast bacillus (TB) culture/smear, Arterial blood gases (ABGs), Capillary blood gases (CBG), Complete Blood Count (CBC), Electrolytes (ELEC), Drug level, Microbial culture, Pleuracentesis, Skin test (PPD or TB), Sputum cultures, Bronchial washings
Created by: alwayslearning
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