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Ms. Smith Chp 8

DeBlij 8th ed. Chp 8 - Political

QuestionAnswer
political geography a subdivision of human geography that is concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and with how the character of those spaces affects social, political, economic, and environmental understandings and practices.
state a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community.
territoriality a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it strongly defended.
sovereignty when final authority over social, economic, and political matters rests with the legitimate rulers of independent states.
territorial integrity the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states.
Peace of Westphalia the first time guidelines were set in place to recognize statehood and nationhood with clearly defined borders and guarantees of security.
mercantilism a protectionist policy of European states from the 16th to 18th centuries that promoted a state's economic position in contest with other countries. The aquistion of gold and silver and the mainenance of a favorable trade balance (more export
state this has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and is recognized by other states.
nation a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes.
nation-state a peice of land that possesses its own sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation.
democracy based on the priciple that the people are the ultimate sovereign and have the final say over what happens in a state.
multinational state state with more than one nation within its borders
multistate nation nation that stretches across borders and across states
stateless nation nation that does not have a state
colonialism rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place. Although often established and maintained through political structures, it creates unequal cultural and economic relations.
scale representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization.
capitalism economic system wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the word maket, with the goal of acheiving profit.
commodification the process throuh which something is given monetary value.
core these are processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology, which leads to a high amount of wealth
periphery processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology, which leads to less wealth
semiperiphery places where core and periphery processes are both occuring
semiperiphery places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery.
ability the capacity of a state to influence other states of acheive its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means
centripetal forces that tend to unify a country
centrifugal forces that tend to divide a country
unitary a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that excercises power equally over all parts of the state.
federal a nation-state with a centralized federal government that also has smaller entities states, provinces)which retain their own laws, policies, and customs.
devolution the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
territorial representation system wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
reapportionment process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district includes approximately the same number of people
splitting creating voting districts that spread the majority and minority populations evenly across the districts to be created, thereby ensuring control by the majority in each of the districts
majority-minority districts when creating voting districts, the majority of the voting poulation is from the minority
gerrymandering redistricting voting districts for political advantage
geometric boundary political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or arc.
physical-political boundary political boundary defined and delimited by a prominent feature in the natural landscape - such as a river or the crest ridges of a mountain range.
Heartland theory a geopolitical theory propesed by Mackindar in the early 20th century
Heartland theory any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world.The most likely superpower would come from Eastern Europe.
unilateralism world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
supranational organization a venture involving 3 or more nation-states that involves formal political, economic, and/or cultural coopreation to promote shared objectives.
examples of supranational organizations The United Nations; NAFTA; NATO
Created by: smithho