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(AHS) CH 25

clemm153 crime

textile production
By the late 1700s, the best place to find a water frame and a spinning mule was in a factory
An entrepreneur is a type of business person
Which of the following did NOT improve as an early result of the Industrial Revolution? factory working conditions
Which of the following did NOT improve as a result of the Industrial Revolution? living conditions for the average worker,educational opportunities, affordability of consumer goods
The country of ___ led Europe in adopting the industrial technology of Britain. Belgium
The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars ___ the process of industrialization in Europe. slowed
Being blockaded during the War of 1812 encouraged _____ to use its own resources to develop independent industries. the United States
A ___ is a type of business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts. corporation
In the 19th century, industrialization had the effect of ___ the gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries. widening
Under the Meiji rulers, ___ began to industrialize. Japan
Who defended the free-market system of capitalism in the book, The Wealth of Nations? Adam Smith
Utilitarianism held that government policies should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Nineteenth-century socialists argued that government should actively plan the economy
With which of the following is Karl Marx most closely associated? communism
In the 19th century, collective bargaining was carried out between employers and employees
When the trade union movement began in Britain, the strike was an illegal action taken against factory owners by union workers
What was the Industrial Revolution? increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18th-century
Which of the following was a result of the agricultural revolution? Many small farmers became tenant farmers or moved to cities. Enclosures became landmarks of wealthy landowners. Landowners experimented with new agricultural methods.
What were the three factors of production required to drive the industrial revolution? land, labor, capital
What was the main cause of the process of urbanization that occurrred in 19th-century Britain and elsewhere in western Europe? industrialization
How did landowners and aristocrats view wealthy members of the middle class? looked down upon
What did Britain do in order to keep industrial secrets from the United States? forbade engineers, mechanics, and toolmakers from leaving the country
What was the benefit of being a stockholder in a corporation? not personally responsible for its debts
What is the laissez-faire policy? a policy that let owners of industry set working conditions without government interference
What is the name for the voluntary associations of workers seeking labor reforms? unions
Which of the following is an example of a reform movement? abolition of slavery, women's rights, public education
In what way did the Agricultural Revolution pave the way for the Industrial Revolution? It led to population growth. It increased food supplies. It caused farmers to lose land and seek other work.
How did Britain's economy affect the process of industrialization? positively, by Britain's highly developed banking system, availability of loans, and climate of progress
What was the impact of the steam engine on the production of British goods? It launched the railway age that brought the transportation of people and materials to a new level.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect cities? It made the population grow faster than the housing supply.
Which factors MOST contributed to the shorter life span of those living in cities as opposed to those in the country? illness caused by unhealthy living conditions
In what way did the new middle class change British society? Some members of the middle class achieved top positions in society
Which of the following was a key idea in the free-market system? refuse to interfere in either domestic or international economic matters
What did William Wilberforce fight for in the 1800s? to abolish slavery and the slave trade.
How might small farmers of the agricultural revolution be compared to the working class of the Industrial Revolution? Both endured long working hours. Both suffered job losses due to progress. Both lived in climates of social restructuring.
What impact did technological advances have on industry? Production of goods was increased.
What was a benefit of the railroad in Britain? It offered cheap transportation for materials and goods.
How did the War of 1812 help pave the way for the United States to industrialize? The British blockade forced it to develop its own industries.
How did the Napoleonic wars and French Revolution impact the industrialization of Continental Europe? Trade was halted in many parts of Europe. Communications between countries were interrupted. Inflation was on the rise in some areas of Europe, disrupting the economy.
How did the impact of worldwide industrialization effect the relationships between industrialized nations and non-industrialized nations? It was the driving force behind imperialism.
How did the philosophy of laissez-faire economics influence early industrialists? with ideas of a free-market economy governed by natural laws, not government regulations
What were the long-term effects of Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto? In the 1900s, Marxism inspired revolutionaries such as Russia's Lenin.
Which of the following statements are true of socialism and communism? Communism is a form of complete socialism in which the people own all production and property.
Why might it be easier for large farms to experiment than for family farmers? More resources
How is population increased connected to improved food supplies and living conditions? People live longer, more babies survive
How did population growth spur the Industrial Revolution? It pushed farmers off the land, sent workers to the cities, and created a ready market for new goods.
Why do you think one invention led to another? Observers get new ideas from seeing other inventers’ work
How were England’s cotton industry and America’s cotton growers linked? Interdependent, each needed the other quality.
What inventions transformed the textile industry? Flying shuttle, shipping jenny, water frame
Why did entrepreneurs want to link Liverpool and Manchester? Textile industry needed a port for its products.
How do you think most Britains reacted to the railroad? Enthusiastically
How did improvements in transportation promote industrialization in Britain? Canals cut the cost of transporting materials
What were four factors that contributed to industrialization in Britain? Large work force, expanding economy, natural resources, political stability.
How did rising population help the Industrial Revolution? Supplied extra workers, created demand.
What American invention aided the British textile industry? Eli Whitney’s cotton gin.
Was the revolution in agriculture necessary to the Industrial Revolution? Explain. Scientific farming was necessary to feed growing population, and also displaced small farmers into industrial labor force.
What effect did entrepreneurs have upon the Industrial Revolution? They promoted it with willingness to risk capital on new inventions and ideas.
How do you think the life span of a child laborer in 1842 compares to the 38-yeat average in a rural area? Shorter
How do you think merchants viewed their workers? As property, as tools.
How does Gaskell indicate her sympathy for the working class in this passage? By describing their terrible living conditions.
Describe the social classes in Britain. Upper class- landowners and aristocrats - upper middle class-managers merchants, government employees, doctors lawyers - lower middle class- factory overseers, skilled - workers a working class of unskilled labores.
Why might the way merchants make money make landowners look down on them? Merchants work hard
Was destroying machines a good solution to the problem? Not wise
How did the Industrial Revolution provide hope of improvement? Now status could be achieved by skills and work.
How would joining together in groups help workers win better conditions and higher pay? Workers were needed
How did geography play a role in Manchester’s growth? Available resources and water access.
Why do you think young children continued to do heavy work in Manchester factories even after the Factory Act? What does this suggest about the relative power of industry compared to government? Owners had no fear of the law, so they continued to use child labor. Industry was stronger than government.
Whose interests did child labor serve? Factory owners profited by being able to pay children low wages
Why did people flock to British cities and towns during the Industrial Revolution? To find jobs in factories.
What social class expanded as a result of industrialization? Middle class.
What were some of the negative effects of the rapid growth of Manchester? Crowded housing, poor sanitation, pollution.
How did industrialization contribute to city growth? Factory system led to manufacturing in central locations, creating jobs and economic opportunity.
How were class tensions affected by the Industrial Revolution? Upper classes looked down on new middle class
Why did Britain want to keep industrialization secret? For financial advantage.
Why might railroads be even more important to U.S industrialization than to that of Britain? Bigger country, more distance.
Why did Lucy Larcom think mill work benefited young women? Larcom believed that mill work offered women more free time and suited the independence of their country upbringing.
Why do you think Cickerill took secret plans to Belgium? To make money.
How did German industry help create political unity? Railroads linked factories, the growing economy helped create political unity.
What factors slowed industrialization in Germany? Germany was politically isolated, and its resources were scattered.
What did less-developed countries get from industrialized nations? Jobs, markets for their raw materials.
How do you think industrialized nations chose the areas they would colonize? On the basis of their natural resources.
Why did imperialism grow out of industrialization? Industrialized countries seized colonies for raw materials and as markets.
What early industries mechanized in the United States? Textiles, clothing, shoemaking.
Why did Belguim lead Europe in adopting industrialization? Rich deposits of iron and coal
How did the Industrial Revolution shift the world balance of power? Promoted competition between industrialized nations and increased poverty in less-developed countries.
Why was Britain unable to keep industrial secrets away from other nations? British workers wanted profits of making new industries in other nations.
What was the most significant effect of the Industrial Revolution? Changes in society
How does laissez-faire economics reflect Enlightenment ideas of challenging power and authority? Minimizes government’s role in economy.
How did capitalism bring about the Industrial Revolution? Led to investing in factories, mines, railroads, etc.
What did Malthus and Ricardo say about the effects of population growth? Malthus said, population growth could lead to starvation. Ricardo said it caused low wages.
How does the utilitarian approach judge the worth of ideas? Utilitarians ask if an idea helps enough people.
Why do you think New Harmony lasted only three years? Perhaps people didn’t really like living in a utopia.
How did Mill Want to change the economic system? He wanted to equalize the distribution of wealth and give the poor a break
How are the “haves” and the “have-nots” interdependent? “Haves” need “have-nots” as workers
Do you think Marx agreed that people work for self-interest? Why or why not? No, Marx believed they would work for the common good.
What were the ideas of Marx and Engels concerning relationships between the owners and the working class? Marx and Engels believed the working class and the owners were natural enemies.
How did the growth of unions help workers? More workers had more bargain power.
How do you think joining a union or supporting a reform law made workers feel? Less helpless and more hopeful.
What were some of the important reform bills passed in Britain during this period? Factory act of 1833
How can slavery be an economic threat? By providing unpaid labor that takes jobs from paid workers.
What do lower wages for women suggest about their place in industrial society? Less valued as workers.
Why might women abolitionists have headed the movement for women’s rights? Their work to gain rights for African Americans may have led them to try to gain equal rights for themselves.
What were Adam Smith’s three natural laws of economics? Self-interest, competition, supply/demand
What kind of society did early socialists want? One with cooperation and economic planning where workers shared profits.
Why did workers join together in unions? To bargain together for better working conditions and higher wages.
What were the main problems faced by the unions during the 1800s and how did they overcome them? Denied right to organize or strike, unskilled workers lacked power
Why do you think that Marx’s “dictatorship of the proletariat” did not happen? Workers were not united or skilled enough to take over governments
Why did the labor reform movement spread to other areas of life?;People saw that group effort could achieve reform. People saw that group effort could achieve reform.
Created by: jchavez